The bronzes are a family of copper-based alloys traditionally alloyed with tin, but can refer to alloys of copper and other elements (e.g. aluminum, silicon, and nickel). Bronzes are somewhat stronger than the brasses, yet they still have a high degree of corrosion resistance. Generally they are used when, in addition to corrosion resistance, good tensile properties are required. For example, beryllium copper attains the greatest strength (to 1,400 MPa) of any copper-based alloy.
Composition of Tin Bronze
In general, tin bronzes are a family of copper-based alloys traditionally alloyed with tin, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin. The addition of small amounts (0.01–0.45) of phosphorus further increases the hardness, fatigue resistance and wear resistance. Addition of these alloyants leads to applications such as springs, fasteners, masonry fixings, shafts, valve spindles, gears and bearings. Bronze is also the preferred metal for bells in the form of a high tin bronze alloy known colloquially as bell metal, which is about 23% tin. High tin bronze alloys are typically found in also gears as well as high-strength bushing and bearing applications where high strength, and heavy loads are present. Other applications for these alloys are pump impellers, piston rings, and steam fittings. For example, copper casting alloy UNS C90500 is a cast alloy of copper-tin, which is also known as gun metal. Originally used chiefly for making guns, it has largely been replaced by steel.
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