Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently. The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials, which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magnetized to become permanent magnets, producing magnetic fields themselves. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic. The most common ones are iron, cobalt and nickel and their alloys.
Diamagnetic Material – Diamagnetism
Diamagnetic materials are those that some people generally think of as non-magnetic. Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force. Diamagnetism results from changes in electron orbital motion that are induced by an external field. Diamagnetic materials include water, wood, most organic compounds such as petroleum and some plastics, and many metals including copper, particularly the heavy ones with many core electrons, such as mercury, gold and bismuth. The effect is extremely small (with susceptibilities on the order of -10-5) and in opposition to the applied field. Diamagnetic materials, like water, or water-based materials, have a relative magnetic permeability that is less than or equal to 1, and therefore a magnetic susceptibility less than or equal to 0, since susceptibility is defined as χv = μv − 1. Diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials are considered nonmagnetic because the magnetizations are relatively small and persist only while an applied field is present. If χ (magnetic susceptibility) is negative, the material is diamagnetic. In this case, the magnetic field in the material is weakened by the induced magnetization. Diamagnetic materials are repelled by magnetic fields. For example, the magnetic susceptibility of diamagnets such as water is χv = −9.05×10−6. The most strongly diamagnetic material is bismuth, χv = −1.66×10−4. Generally, nonmagnetic materials are said to be para- or diamagnetic because they do not possess permanent magnetization without external magnetic field.
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