Electrolytic tough pitch copper, UNS C11000, is pure copper (with a maximum of 0.0355% of impurities) refined by electrolytic refining process and it is the most widely used grade of copper all over the world. ETP has a minimum conductivity rating of 100% IACS and is required to be 99.9% pure. It has 0.02% to 0.04% oxygen content (typical). Electrical wiring is the most important market for the copper industry. This includes structural power wiring, power distribution cable, appliance wire, communications cable, automotive wire and cable, and magnet wire. Roughly half of all copper mined is used for electrical wire and cable conductors. Pure copper has the best electrical and thermal conductivity of any commercial metal. The conductivity of copper is 97% that of silver. Due to its much lower cost and greater abundance, copper has traditionally been the standard material used for electricity transmission applications.
According to the Copper Development Association:
„The term ‘tough pitch’ originates from the time when molten copper, after refining, was cast into ingot moulds. During refining the copper was oxidised to remove impurities then reduced by hydrogen to give the correct oxygen level. To monitor this process, a small sample was taken and the solidification surface observed. If the surface sunk there was too much oxygen; if it was raised there was too much hydrogen. If it was level (correct pitch), the oxygen was correct, and the properties good; in other words ‘tough’, hence tough pitch.“
Thermal Properties of Electrolytic-tough pitch (ETP) copper
Thermal properties of materials refer to the response of materials to changes in their temperature and to the application of heat. As a solid absorbs energy in the form of heat, its temperature rises and its dimensions increase. But different materials react to the application of heat differently.
Melting Point of Electrolytic-tough pitch (ETP) copper
Melting point of electrolytic-tough pitch (ETP) copper is around 1085°C.
In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium.
Thermal Conductivity of Electrolytic-tough pitch (ETP) copper
The thermal conductivity of electrolytic-tough pitch (ETP) copper is 394 W/(m.K).
The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.
The thermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with temperature. For vapors, it also depends upon pressure. In general:
Most materials are very nearly homogeneous, therefore we can usually write k = k (T). Similar definitions are associated with thermal conductivities in the y- and z-directions (ky, kz), but for an isotropic material the thermal conductivity is independent of the direction of transfer, kx = ky = kz = k.
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