In an antiferromagnet, unlike a ferromagnet, there is a tendency for the intrinsic magnetic moments of neighboring valence electrons to point in opposite directions. When all atoms are arranged in a substance so that each neighbor is anti-parallel, the substance is antiferromagnetic. Antiferromagnets have a zero net magnetic moment, meaning that no field is produced by them. Manganese oxide (MnO) is one material that displays this behavior. Generally, antiferromagnetic order may exist at sufficiently low temperatures, but vanishes at and above the Néel temperature. Above the Néel temperature, the material is typically paramagnetic, that is, the thermal energy becomes large enough to destroy the microscopic magnetic ordering within the material. The Néel temperature of MnO is about 116K.
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