Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently. The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials, which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magnetized to become permanent magnets, producing magnetic fields themselves. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic. The most common ones are iron, cobalt and nickel and their alloys.
Paramagnetic Material – Paramagnetism
Paramagnetic materials are those having permanent atomic dipoles, which are acted on individually and aligned in the direction of an external field. Diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials are considered nonmagnetic because the magnetizations are relatively small and persist only while an applied field is present. If χ (magnetic susceptibility) is positive, a material can be paramagnetic. In this case, the magnetic field in the material is strengthened by the induced magnetization. Paramagnetic materials include most chemical elements and some compounds. They have a relative magnetic permeability slightly greater than 1 (i.e., a small positive magnetic susceptibility) and hence are attracted to magnetic fields. Generally, nonmagnetic materials are said to be para- or diamagnetic because they do not possess permanent magnetization without external magnetic field.
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