In mechanics and materials science, stress (represented by a lowercase Greek letter sigma – σ) is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighbouring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material which is not a physical quantity.
Although it is impossible to measure the intensity of this stress, the external load and the area to which it is applied can be measured. Stress (σ) can be equated to the load per unit area or the force (F) applied per cross-sectional area (A) perpendicular to the force as:
When a metal is subjected to a load (force), it is distorted or deformed, no matter how strong the metal or light the load. If the load is small, the distortion will probably disappear when the load is removed. The intensity, or degree, of distortion is known as strain. A deformation is called elastic deformation, if the stress is a linear function of strain. In other words, stress and strain follows Hooke’s law. Beyond the linear region, stress and strain show nonlinear behavior. This inelastic behavior is called plastic deformation.
Stress is the internal resistance, or counterfource, of a material to the distorting effects of an external force or load. These counterforces tend to return the atoms to their normal positions. The total resistance developed is equal to the external load.
Residual stresses are stresses caused by manufacturing processes. This type od stress remains in a solid material after the original cause of the stresses has been removed. For example, welding leaves residual stresses in the metals welded. Heat from welding may cause localized expansion, which is taken up during welding by either the molten metal or the placement of parts being welded.
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