Magnesium alloys are mixtures of magnesium and other alloying metal, usually aluminium, zinc, silicon, manganese, copper and zirconium. Since the most outstanding characteristic of magnesium is its density, 1.7 g/cm3, its alloys are used where light weight is an important consideration (e.g., in aircraft components). Magnesium has the lowest melting point (923 K (1,202 °F)) of all the alkaline earth metals. Pure magnesium has an HCP crystal structure, is relatively soft, and has a low elastic modulus: 45 GPa. Magnesium alloys have also a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. At room temperature, magnesium and its alloys are difficult to perform cold working due to the fact plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminium, copper and steel. Therefore, magnesium alloys are typically used as cast alloys. Despite the reactive nature of the pure magnesium powder, magnesium metal and its alloys have good resistance to corrosion.
Uses of Magnesium Alloys – Application
Magnesium alloys are used in a wide variety of structural and nonstructural applications. Structural applications include automotive, industrial, materials-handling, commercial, and aerospace equipment. Magnesium alloys are used for parts that operate at high speeds and thus must be light weight to minimize inertial forces. Commercial applications include hand-held tools, laptops, luggage, and ladders, automobiles (e.g., steering wheels and columns, seat frames, transmission cases). Magnox (alloy), whose name is an abbreviation for “magnesium non-oxidizing”, is 99% magnesium and 1% aluminum, and is used in the cladding of fuel rods in magnox nuclear power reactors.
Elektron 21 – UNS M12310
In general, Elektron is the registered trademark of a wide range of magnesium alloys manufactured by a British company Magnesium Elektron Limited. Elektron 21, designated by UNS M12310, is one of alloys with excellent corrosion resistance and castability. Cast products possess a fine-grained microstructure and pressure tightness. This alloy can be easily machined. Application include motorsports and aerospace, since it possess high strength, light weight and it has excellent vibration damping characteristics.
|Phase at STP||N/A|
|Ultimate Tensile Strength||280 MPa|
|Yield Strength||145 MPa|
|Young’s Modulus of Elasticity||45 GPa|
|Brinell Hardness||70 BHN|
|Melting Point||550-640 °C|
|Thermal Conductivity||116 W/mK|
|Heat Capacity||900 J/g K|
Composition of Elektron 21 – UNS M12310
Elektron 21 – UNS M12310 si composed from Magnesium (96%), Neodymium (3%) and Gadolinium (1%).
Applications of Elektron 21 – UNS M12310
Application include motorsports and aerospace, since it possess high strength, light weight and it has excellent vibration damping characteristics. Magnesium alloys are used in a wide variety of structural and nonstructural applications. Structural applications include automotive, industrial, materials-handling, commercial, and aerospace equipment. Magnesium alloys are used for parts that operate at high speeds and thus must be light weight to minimize inertial forces. Commercial applications include hand-held tools, laptops, luggage, and ladders, automobiles (e.g., steering wheels and columns, seat frames, transmission cases).
Mechanical Properties of Elektron 21 – UNS M12310
Strength of Elektron 21
In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape.
Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation. For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins. In case of tensional stress of a uniform bar (stress-strain curve), the Hooke’s law describes behaviour of a bar in the elastic region. The Young’s modulus of elasticity is the elastic modulus for tensile and compressive stress in the linear elasticity regime of a uniaxial deformation and is usually assessed by tensile tests.
See also: Strength of Materials
Ultimate Tensile Strength of Elektron 21
Ultimate tensile strength of Elektron 21 is 280 MPa.
Yield Strength of Elektron 21
Yield strength of Elektron 21 is 145 MPa.
Modulus of Elasticity of Elektron 21
The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Elektron 21 is 45 GPa.
Hardness of Elektron 21
In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratching. Brinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.
The Brinell hardness number (HB) is the load divided by the surface area of the indentation. The diameter of the impression is measured with a microscope with a superimposed scale. The Brinell hardness number is computed from the equation:
Brinell hardness of Elektron 21 is approximately 70 BHN(converted).
See also: Hardness of Materials
Thermal Properties of Elektron 21 – UNS M12310
Elektron 21 – Melting Point
Melting point of Elektron 21 is 550-640 °C.
Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure. In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium. For various chemical compounds and alloys, it is difficult to define the melting point, since they are usually a mixture of various chemical elements.
Elektron 21 – Thermal Conductivity
Thermal conductivity of Elektron 21 is 116 W/(m·K).
The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.
The thermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with temperature. For vapors, it also depends upon pressure. In general:
Most materials are very nearly homogeneous, therefore we can usually write k = k (T). Similar definitions are associated with thermal conductivities in the y- and z-directions (ky, kz), but for an isotropic material the thermal conductivity is independent of the direction of transfer, kx = ky = kz = k.
Elektron 21 – Specific Heat
Specific heat of Elektron 21 is 900 J/g K.
Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:
where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats (or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg K or J/mol K.
Properties and prices of other materials
We hope, this article, Elektron 21 – UNS M12310 – Magnesium Alloy, helps you. If so, give us a like in the sidebar. Main purpose of this website is to help the public to learn some interesting and important information about materials and their properties.