Elasticity of Materials

This table summarizes modulus of elasticity of the most common materials you may encounter in your life. Explore the world of materials, compare materials with each other and also try to explore other properties as well.
Material Table - Elasticity of Materials
Water

——

N/A

Air

——

N/A

Ice

——

9.1 GPa

Glass

——

80 GPa

Boron carbide

——

460 GPa

Graphite

——

11.5 GPa

Carbon fiber

——

500 GPa

Polyethylene

——

1 GPa

Polypropylene

——

1.3 GPa

Carbon dioxide

——

N/A

Brick

——

N/A

Porcelain

——

N/A

Tungsten carbide

——

600 GPa

Diamond

——

1050 GPa

Graphene

——

1000 GPa

PET

——

9 GPa

Polycarbonate

——

2.3 GPa

Carbon monoxide

——

N/A

Sand

——

N/A

Limestone

——

34 GPa

Elektron 21

——

45 GPa

Duralumin

——

76 GPa

Zirconium-tin alloy

——

99 GPa

Austenitic stainless steel

——

193 GPa

Mild steel

——

200 GPa

Gray iron

——

124 GPa

TZM alloy

——

320 GPa

Inconel

——

200 GPa

ETP

——

120 GPa

Cupronickel

——

135 GPa

Zamak 3

——

96 GPa

Ruby

——

350 GPa

Uranium dioxide

——

N/A

Polystyrene

——

3.4 GPa

Polyvinyl chloride

——

3.4 GPa

Nitrous oxide

——

N/A

Concrete

——

60 GPa

Granite

——

N/A

Pure titanium

——

116 GPa

6061 alloy

——

69 GPa

Zirconium-niobium alloy

——

99 GPa

Martensitic stainless steel

——

200 GPa

High-carbon steel

——

200 GPa

White iron

——

175 GPa

Mo-25 Re alloy

——

360 GPa

Hastelloy

——

205 GPa

Brass

——

110 GPa

Aluminium bronze

——

110 GPa

Soft tin solder

——

30 GPa

Salt

——

20 GPa

Kevlar

——

130 GPa

Polyamide-Nylon

——

2.9 GPa

Rubber

——

0.05 GPa

Methan

——

N/A

Stone wool

——

N/A

Quartz

——

37 GPa

Ti-6Al-4V

——

114 GPa

7068 alloy

——

73 GPa

Chromoly steel

——

203 GPa

Duplex stainless steel

——

200 GPa

Tool steel

——

200 GPa

Ductile iron

——

170 GPa

Tungsten-rhenium alloy

——

400 GPa

Stellite

——

230 GPa

Bronze

——

103 GPa

Beryllium copper

——

131 GPa

Amalgam

——

40 GPa

Sugar

——

N/A

Wax

——

0.2 GPa

Coal

——

N/A

Asphalt concrete

——

8 GPa

Propane

——

N/A

Glass wool

——

N/A

Aerogel

——

0.005 GPa

Rose gold

——

77 GPa

Yellow gold

——

75 GPa

White gold

——

75 GPa

PH stainless steel

——

200 GPa

High-speed steel

——

200 GPa

Malleable iron

——

172 GPa

Pure tungsten

——

750 GPa

Invar

——

135 GPa

Constantan

——

162 GPa

Nickel silver

——

117 GPa

Galistan

——

N/A

Oak wood

——

9 GPa

Pine wood

——

10 GPa

Gasoline

——

N/A

Diesel fuel

——

N/A

Acetylene

——

N/A

Modulus of Elasticity of Materials

Hooke's law - stress-strain curveIn case of tensional stress of a uniform bar (stress-strain curve), the Hooke’s law describes behaviour of a bar in the elastic region. In this region, the elongation of the bar is directly proportional to the tensile force and the length of the bar and inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area and the modulus of elasticity. Up to a limiting stress, a body will be able to recover its dimensions on removal of the load. The applied stresses cause the atoms in a crystal to move from their equilibrium position. All the atoms are displaced the same amount and still maintain their relative geometry. When the stresses are removed, all the atoms return to their original positions and no permanent deformation occurs. According to the Hooke’s law, the stress is proportional to the strain (in the elastic region), and the slope is Young’s modulus.

Hooke's law - equation

We can extend the same idea of relating stress to strain to shear applications in the linear region, relating shear stress to shear strain to create Hooke’s law for shear stress:

Hooke’s law for shear stress

For isotropic materials within the elastic region, you can relate Poisson’s ratio (ν), Young’s modulus of elasticity (E), and the shear modulus of elasticity (G):

Hooke’s law - poissons ratio

The elastic moduli relevant to polycrystalline materials:

  • Young's Modulus of Elasticity - Table of MaterialsYoung’s Modulus of Elasticity. The Young’s modulus of elasticity is the elastic modulus for tensile and compressive stress in the linear elasticity regime of a uniaxial deformation and is usually assessed by tensile tests.
  • Shear Modulus of Elasticity. The shear modulus, or the modulus of rigidity, is derived from the torsion of a cylindrical test piece. It describes the material’s response to shear stress. Its symbol is G. The shear modulus is one of several quantities for measuring the stiffness of materials and it arises in the generalized Hooke’s law.
  • Bulk Modulus of Elasticity. The bulk modulus of elasticity is describes volumetric elasticity, or the tendency of an object to deform in all directions when uniformly loaded in all directions. For example, it describes the elastic response to hydrostatic pressure and equilateral tension (like the pressure at the bottom of the ocean or a deep swimming pool). It is also the property of a material that determines the elastic response to the application of stress. For a fluid, only the bulk modulus is meaningful.