Melting Point of Materials

This table summarizes melting points of the most common materials you may encounter in your life. Explore the world of materials, compare materials with each other and also try to explore other properties as well.
Water

——

0 °C

Air

——

N/A

Ice

——

0 °C

Glass

——

1700 °C

Boron carbide

——

2427 °C

Graphite

——

3600 °C

Carbon fiber

——

3657 °C

Polyethylene

——

317 °C

Polypropylene

——

337 °C

Carbon dioxide

——

-57 °C

Brick

——

1727 °C

Porcelain

——

1927 °C

Tungsten carbide

——

2867 °C

Diamond

——

4027 °C

Graphene

——

3697 °C

PET

——

267 °C

Polycarbonate

——

297 °C

Carbon monoxide

——

-205 °C

Sand

——

1577 °C

Limestone

——

1337 °C

Elektron 21

——

550-640 °C

Duralumin

——

570 °C

Zirconium-tin alloy

——

1850 °C

Austenitic stainless steel

——

1450 °C

Mild steel

——

1450 °C

Gray iron

——

1260 °C

TZM alloy

——

2597 °C

Inconel

——

1400 °C

ETP

——

1085 °C

Cupronickel

——

1100 °C

Zamak 3

——

385 °C

Ruby

——

2047 °C

Uranium dioxide

——

2847 °C

Polystyrene

——

217 °C

Polyvinyl chloride

——

177 °C

Nitrous oxide

——

-91 °C

Concrete

——

1527 °C

Granite

——

1260 °C

Pure titanium

——

1941 °C

6061 alloy

——

600 °C

Zirconium-niobium alloy

——

1850 °C

Martensitic stainless steel

——

1450 °C

High-carbon steel

——

1515 °C

White iron

——

1260 °C

Mo-25 Re alloy

——

2527 °C

Hastelloy

——

1327 °C

Brass

——

677 °C

Aluminium bronze

——

1030 °C

Soft tin solder

——

183 °C

Salt

——

797 °C

Kevlar

——

477 °C

Polyamide-Nylon

——

257 °C

Rubber

——

177 °C

Methan

——

-183 °C

Stone wool

——

997 °C

Quartz

——

1667 °C

Ti-6Al-4V

——

1660 °C

7068 alloy

——

597 °C

Chromoly steel

——

1427 °C

Duplex stainless steel

——

1450 °C

Tool steel

——

1420 °C

Ductile iron

——

1150 °C

Tungsten-rhenium alloy

——

3027 °C

Stellite

——

1297 °C

Bronze

——

1000 °C

Beryllium copper

——

866 °C

Amalgam

——

227 °C

Sugar

——

186 °C

Wax

——

57 °C

Coal

——

1127 °C

Asphalt concrete

——

167 °C

Propane

——

-189 °C

Glass wool

——

1227 °C

Aerogel

——

1197 °C

Rose gold

——

897 °C

Yellow gold

——

912 °C

White gold

——

937 °C

PH stainless steel

——

1450 °C

High-speed steel

——

1430 °C

Malleable iron

——

1260 °C

Pure tungsten

——

3695 °C

Invar

——

1687 °C

Constantan

——

1207 °C

Nickel silver

——

1040 °C

Galistan

——

-19 °C

Oak wood

——

N/A

Pine wood

——

N/A

Gasoline

——

N/A

Diesel fuel

——

N/A

Acetylene

——

-82 °C

Melting Point of Materials

In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium. Adding a heat will convert the solid into a liquid with no temperature change. At the melting point the two phases of a substance, liquid and vapor, have identical free energies and therefore are equally likely to exist. Below the melting point, the solid is the more stable state of the two, whereas above the liquid form is preferred. The melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard pressure. When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from liquid to solid, it is referred to as the freezing point or crystallization point.

See also: Melting Point Depression

The first theory explaining mechanism of melting in the bulk was proposed by Lindemann, who used vibration of atoms in the crystal to explain the melting transition. Solids are similar to liquids in that both are condensed states, with particles that are far closer together than those of a gas. The atoms in a solid are tightly bound to each other, either in a regular geometric lattice (crystalline solids, which include metals and ordinary ice) or irregularly (an amorphous solid such as common window glass), and are typically low in energy. The motion of individual atoms, ions, or molecules in a solid is restricted to vibrational motion about a fixed point. As a solid is heated, its particles vibrate more rapidly as the solid absorbs kinetic energy. At some point the amplitude of vibration becomes so large that the atoms start to invade the space of their nearest neighbors and disturb them and the melting process initiates. The melting point is the temperature at which the disruptive vibrations of the particles of the solid overcome the attractive forces operating within the solid.

As with boiling points, the melting point of a solid is dependent on the strength of those attractive forces. For example, sodium chloride  (NaCl) is an ionic compound that consists of a multitude of strong ionic bonds. Sodium chloride melts at  801°C. On the other hand, ice (solid H2O) is a molecular compound whose molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds, which is effectively a strong example of an interaction between two permanent dipoles. Though hydrogen bonds are the strongest of the intermolecular forces, the strength of hydrogen bonds is much less than that of ionic bonds. The melting point of ice is 0 °C.

Covalent bonds often result in the formation of small collections of better-connected atoms called molecules, which in solids and liquids are bound to other molecules by forces that are often much weaker than the covalent bonds that hold the molecules internally together. Such weak intermolecular bonds give organic molecular substances, such as waxes and oils, their soft bulk character, and their low melting points (in liquids, molecules must cease most structured or oriented contact with each other).

 

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