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Titanium and Niobium – Comparison – Properties

This article contains comparison of key thermal and atomic properties of titanium and niobium, two comparable chemical elements from the periodic table. It also contains basic descriptions and applications of both elements. Titanium vs Niobium.

titanium and niobium - comparison

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Titanium and Niobium – About Elements


Titanium is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. Titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine. Titanium can be used in surface condensers. These condensers use tubes that are usually made of stainless steel, copper alloys, or titanium depending on several selection criteria (such as thermal conductivity or corrosion resistance). Titanium condenser tubes are usually the best technical choice, however titanium is very expensive material and the use of titanium condenser tubes is associated with very high initial costs.


Niobium is a soft, grey, ductile transition metal, often found in the minerals pyrochlore (the main commercial source for niobium) and columbite.

Titanium in Periodic Table

Niobium in Periodic Table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Titanium and Niobium – Applications


The two most useful properties of the metal are corrosion resistance and strength-to-density ratio, the highest of any metallic element. The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys at normal temperatures is unusually high. These properties determine application of titanium and its alloys. The earliest production application of titanium was in 1952, for the nacelles and firewalls of the Douglas DC-7 airliner. High specific strength, good fatigue resistance and creep life, and good fracture toughness are characteristics that make titanium a preferred metal for aerospace applications. Aerospace applications, including use in both structural (airframe) components and jet engines, still account for the largest share of titanium alloy use. On the supersonic aircraft SR-71, titanium was used for 85% of the structure. Due to very high inertness, titanium has many biomedical applications, which is based on its inertness in the human body, that is, resistance to corrosion by body fluids.


Niobium consumption is dominated by its use as additive to high strength low alloy steel and stainless steel for oil and gas pipelines, car and truck bodies, architectural requirements, tool steels, ships hulls, railroad tracks. However, there are a number of other applications for niobium metal and its compounds. Although niobium has many applications the majority is used in the production of high-grade structural steel. The second largest application for niobium is in nickel-based superalloys. Niobium-tin alloys are used as superconducting magnets.

Titanium and Niobium – Comparison in Table

Element Titanium Niobium
Density 4.507 g/cm3 8.57 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 434 MPa, 293 MPa (pure) 275 MPa
Yield Strength 380 MPa 70 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 116 GPa 105 GPa
Mohs Scale 6 6
Brinell Hardness 700 – 2700 MPa 740 MPa
Vickers Hardness 800 – 3400 MPa 1300 MPa
Melting Point 1668 °C 2477 °C
Boiling Point 3287 °C 4744 °C
Thermal Conductivity 21.9 W/mK 53.7 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 8.6 µm/mK 7.3 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.52 J/g K 0.26 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 15.45 kJ/mol 26.4 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 421 kJ/mol 682 kJ/mol