Acetylene – Material Table – Applications – Price

About Acetylene

Acetylene is a colorless, highly flammable gas with an ethereal odor. Acetylene is a hydrocarbon and the simplest alkyne with the formula C2H2. Commercial acetylene will have a garlic-like odor. It is shipped with dissolved acetone in its gaseous form. Typical uses oxyacetylene welding and chemical synthesis.

acetylene properties density strength price

Summary

Name Acetylene
Phase at STP N/A
Density 1.1 kg/m3
Ultimate Tensile Strength N/A
Yield Strength N/A
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A
Melting Point -82 °C
Thermal Conductivity 0.024 W/mK
Heat Capacity 1674 J/g K
Price 14 $/kg

Composition of Acetylene

Acetylene is a hydrocarbon and the simplest alkyne with the formula C2H2. As an alkyne, acetylene is unsaturated because its two carbon atoms are bonded together in a triple bond. The carbon–carbon triple bond places all four atoms in the same straight line, with CCH bond angles of 180°.

92%Carbon in Periodic Table

8%Hydrogen in Periodic Table

Applications of Acetylene

Typical uses oxyacetylene chemical synthesis and especially for welding and cutting. Among all other gases, acetylene is capable of producing the hottest flame. The welding process that uses acetylene is known as oxy-fuel cutting or gas cutting. This method is used to cut or weld materials that require temperatures as high as 3,500 °C.

Strength of Materials

Material Table - Strength of Materials

Elasticity of Materials

Material Table - Elasticity of Materials

Hardness of Materials

Material Table - Hardness of Materials  

Thermal Properties of Acetylene

Acetylene – Melting Point

Melting point of Acetylene is -82 °C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure. In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium. For various chemical compounds and alloys, it is difficult to define the melting point, since they are usually a mixture of various chemical elements.

Acetylene – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Acetylene is 0.024 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

The thermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with temperature. For vapors, it also depends upon pressure. In general:

thermal conductivity - definition

Most materials are very nearly homogeneous, therefore we can usually write k = k (T). Similar definitions are associated with thermal conductivities in the y- and z-directions (ky, kz), but for an isotropic material the thermal conductivity is independent of the direction of transfer, kx = ky = kz = k.

Acetylene – Specific Heat

Specific heat of Acetylene is 1674 J/g K.

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats (or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg K or J/mol K.

Melting Point of Materials

Material Table - Melting Point

Thermal Conductivity of Materials

Material Table - Thermal Conductivity

Heat Capacity of Materials

Material Table - Heat Capacity

Properties and prices of other materials

material-table-in-8k-resolution

Diesel Fuel – Material Table – Applications – Price

About Diesel Fuel

In general, diesel fuel is any liquid fuel specifically designed for use in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel. Currently, the main source of fuel for road vehicles is petroleum oil. Oil is a naturally occurring, fossil liquid comprising a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights together with various other organic compounds. These components are separated by fractional distillation in an oil refinery in order to produce gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene and other products.

diesel fuel properties density strength price

Summary

Name Diesel Fuel
Phase at STP N/A
Density 850 kg/m3
Ultimate Tensile Strength N/A
Yield Strength N/A
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A
Melting Point N/A
Thermal Conductivity 0.13 W/mK
Heat Capacity 2100 J/g K
Price 1.1 $/kg

Composition of Diesel Fuel

Diesel fuel is used primarily as a fuel in most diesel engines. Diesel fuel is mostly used in high-speed diesel engines, especially motor-vehicle (e.g. car, lorry) diesel engines, but not all diesel engines run on diesel fuel. The usage and pricing of gasoline (or petrol) results from factors such as crude oil prices, processing and distribution costs, local demand, the strength of local currencies, local taxation, and the availability of local sources of gasoline (supply). Since fuels are traded worldwide, the trade prices are similar. The price paid by consumers largely reflects national pricing policy. Some regions, such as Europe and Japan, impose high taxes on gasoline (petrol); others, such as Saudi Arabia and Venezuela, subsidize the cost.

86%Carbon in Periodic Table

14%Hydrogen in Periodic Table

Applications of Diesel Fuel

Diesel Fuel - Material Table - Applications - Price
Source: wikipedia.org License: CC-BY SA 3.0

Diesel, or diesel fuel, refers in general to any fuel that can be used in a diesel engine. Petroleumderived diesel (PDD) is composed of ca. 64-75% saturated hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins including n-, iso-, and cyclo-paraffins), l-2% olefinic hydrocarbons and 25-35% aromatic hydrocarbons (including naphthalenes and alkylbenzenes). Although the average chemical formula for common diesel fuel is C12H23, components range from approximately C10H20 to C15H28.

Strength of Materials

Material Table - Strength of Materials

Elasticity of Materials

Material Table - Elasticity of Materials

Hardness of Materials

Material Table - Hardness of Materials  

Thermal Properties of Diesel Fuel

Diesel Fuel – Melting Point

Melting point of Diesel Fuel is N/A.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure. In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium. For various chemical compounds and alloys, it is difficult to define the melting point, since they are usually a mixture of various chemical elements.

Diesel Fuel – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Diesel Fuel is 0.13 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

The thermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with temperature. For vapors, it also depends upon pressure. In general:

thermal conductivity - definition

Most materials are very nearly homogeneous, therefore we can usually write k = k (T). Similar definitions are associated with thermal conductivities in the y- and z-directions (ky, kz), but for an isotropic material the thermal conductivity is independent of the direction of transfer, kx = ky = kz = k.

Diesel Fuel – Specific Heat

Specific heat of Diesel Fuel is 2100 J/g K.

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats (or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg K or J/mol K.

Melting Point of Materials

Material Table - Melting Point

Thermal Conductivity of Materials

Material Table - Thermal Conductivity

Heat Capacity of Materials

Material Table - Heat Capacity

Properties and prices of other materials

material-table-in-8k-resolution

Gasoline – Material Table – Applications – Price

About Gasoline

Gasoline, or petrol is a clear petroleum-derived flammable liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in most spark-ignited internal combustion engines. Currently, the main source of fuel for road vehicles is petroleum oil. Oil is a naturally occurring, fossil liquid comprising a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights together with various other organic compounds. These components are separated by fractional distillation in an oil refinery in order to produce gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene and other products.

gasoline properties density strength price

Summary

Name Gasoline
Phase at STP N/A
Density 755 kg/m3
Ultimate Tensile Strength N/A
Yield Strength N/A
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A
Melting Point N/A
Thermal Conductivity 0.16 W/mK
Heat Capacity 2200 J/g K
Price 1.5 $/kg

Composition of Gasoline

Gasoline, or petroleum spirit (petrol), is a complex mixture consisting of mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons [C5-C13 n-alkanes (17.7%) and C4-C13 branched alkanes (32%), C6-C8 cycloalkanes (5%), C6 olefins (1.8%), aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, C3-benzenes, C4-benzenes (30.5%)] and other possible components such as octane enhancers (MTBE, TBA, ethanol, methanol), antioxidants, metal deactivators, ignition controllers, icing inhibitors, detergents and corrosion inhibitors.

84%Carbon in Periodic Table

16%Hydrogen in Periodic Table

Applications of Gasoline

Gasoline - Material Table - Applications - Price
Source: wikipedia.org License: CC-BY SA 3.0

Gasoline is used primarily as a fuel in most spark-ignited internal combustion engines. The usage and pricing of gasoline (or petrol) results from factors such as crude oil prices, processing and distribution costs, local demand, the strength of local currencies, local taxation, and the availability of local sources of gasoline (supply). Since fuels are traded worldwide, the trade prices are similar. The price paid by consumers largely reflects national pricing policy. Some regions, such as Europe and Japan, impose high taxes on gasoline (petrol); others, such as Saudi Arabia and Venezuela, subsidize the cost.

Strength of Materials

Material Table - Strength of Materials

Elasticity of Materials

Material Table - Elasticity of Materials

Hardness of Materials

Material Table - Hardness of Materials  

Thermal Properties of Gasoline

Gasoline – Melting Point

Melting point of Gasoline is N/A.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure. In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium. For various chemical compounds and alloys, it is difficult to define the melting point, since they are usually a mixture of various chemical elements.

Gasoline – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Gasoline is 0.16 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

The thermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with temperature. For vapors, it also depends upon pressure. In general:

thermal conductivity - definition

Most materials are very nearly homogeneous, therefore we can usually write k = k (T). Similar definitions are associated with thermal conductivities in the y- and z-directions (ky, kz), but for an isotropic material the thermal conductivity is independent of the direction of transfer, kx = ky = kz = k.

Gasoline – Specific Heat

Specific heat of Gasoline is 2200 J/g K.

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats (or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg K or J/mol K.

Melting Point of Materials

Material Table - Melting Point

Thermal Conductivity of Materials

Material Table - Thermal Conductivity

Heat Capacity of Materials

Material Table - Heat Capacity

Properties and prices of other materials

material-table-in-8k-resolution

Pine Wood – Material Table – Applications – Price

About Pine Wood

In general, wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material – a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. It is common to classify wood as either softwood or hardwood. The wood from conifers (e.g. pine) is called softwood, and the wood from dicotyledons (usually broad-leaved trees, e.g. oak) is called hardwood. These names are a bit misleading, as hardwoods are not necessarily hard, and softwoods are not necessarily soft.

pine wood properties density strength price

Summary

Name Pine Wood
Phase at STP N/A
Density 500 kg/m3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 35 MPa
Yield Strength N/A
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 10 GPa
Brinell Hardness 2 BHN
Melting Point N/A
Thermal Conductivity 0.172 W/mK
Heat Capacity 2300 J/g K
Price 0.5 $/kg

Composition of Pine Wood

Wood is composed of dry matter and water. Dry matter is the part of wood that does not contain water. Aside from water, wood has three main components. Cellulose, a crystalline polymer derived from glucose, constitutes about 41–43%. Next in abundance is hemicellulose, which is around 20% in deciduous trees but near 30% in conifers. Lignin is the third component at around 27% in coniferous wood vs. 23% in deciduous trees. Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C6H10O5)n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units. The dry matter contains a certain amount of elements: 50 % carbon (C), 41 % oxygen (O), and 6 % hydrogen (H). The rest are different substances, mainly nitrogen (N), sulphur (S) and ash. Because there are many vaporizable elements, such as oxygen and hydrogen in the wood’s dry matter, the flame is long.

50%Carbon in Periodic Table

41%Oxygen in Periodic Table

9%Hydrogen in Periodic Table

Applications of Pine Wood

Pine Wood - Material Table - Applications - Price
Source: wikipedia.org License: CC-BY SA 3.0

Pines are among the most commercially important tree species valued for their timber and wood pulp throughout the world. Because pines have no insect- or decay-resistant qualities after logging, untreated they are generally recommended for construction purposes as indoor use only. Some species have large seeds, called pine nuts, that are harvested and sold for cooking and baking.

Mechanical Properties of Pine Wood

Strength of Pine Wood

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape.

Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation. For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins. In case of tensional stress of a uniform bar (stress-strain curve), the Hooke’s law describes behaviour of a bar in the elastic region. The Young’s modulus of elasticity is the elastic modulus for tensile and compressive stress in the linear elasticity regime of a uniaxial deformation and is usually assessed by tensile tests.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Pine Wood

Ultimate tensile strength of Pine Wood is 35 MPa.

Yield Strength of Pine Wood

Yield strength of Pine Wood is N/A.

Modulus of Elasticity of Pine Wood

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Pine Wood is 10 GPa.

Hardness of Pine Wood

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

The Brinell hardness number (HB) is the load divided by the surface area of the indentation. The diameter of the impression is measured with a microscope with a superimposed scale. The Brinell hardness number is computed from the equation:

brinell hardness number - definition

Brinell hardness of Pine Wood is approximately  2 BHN (converted).

See also: Hardness of Materials

Strength of Materials

Material Table - Strength of Materials

Elasticity of Materials

Material Table - Elasticity of Materials

Hardness of Materials

Material Table - Hardness of Materials  

Thermal Properties of Pine Wood

Pine Wood – Melting Point

Melting point of Pine Wood is N/A.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure. In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium. For various chemical compounds and alloys, it is difficult to define the melting point, since they are usually a mixture of various chemical elements.

Pine Wood – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Pine Wood is 0.12 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

The thermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with temperature. For vapors, it also depends upon pressure. In general:

thermal conductivity - definition

Most materials are very nearly homogeneous, therefore we can usually write k = k (T). Similar definitions are associated with thermal conductivities in the y- and z-directions (ky, kz), but for an isotropic material the thermal conductivity is independent of the direction of transfer, kx = ky = kz = k.

Pine Wood – Specific Heat

Specific heat of Pine Wood is 2300 J/g K.

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats (or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg K or J/mol K.

Melting Point of Materials

Material Table - Melting Point

Thermal Conductivity of Materials

Material Table - Thermal Conductivity

Heat Capacity of Materials

Material Table - Heat Capacity

Properties and prices of other materials

material-table-in-8k-resolution

Oak Wood – Material Table – Applications – Price

About Oak Wood

In general, wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material – a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. It is common to classify wood as either softwood or hardwood. The wood from conifers (e.g. pine) is called softwood, and the wood from dicotyledons (usually broad-leaved trees, e.g. oak) is called hardwood. These names are a bit misleading, as hardwoods are not necessarily hard, and softwoods are not necessarily soft.

oak wood properties density strength price

Summary

Name Oak Wood
Phase at STP N/A
Density 704 kg/m3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 70 MPa
Yield Strength N/A
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 9 GPa
Brinell Hardness 4 BHN
Melting Point N/A
Thermal Conductivity 0.17 W/mK
Heat Capacity 2000 J/g K
Price 0.7 $/kg

Composition of Oak Wood

Wood is composed of dry matter and water. Dry matter is the part of wood that does not contain water. Aside from water, wood has three main components. Cellulose, a crystalline polymer derived from glucose, constitutes about 41–43%. Next in abundance is hemicellulose, which is around 20% in deciduous trees but near 30% in conifers. Lignin is the third component at around 27% in coniferous wood vs. 23% in deciduous trees. Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C6H10O5)n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units. The dry matter contains a certain amount of elements: 50 % carbon (C), 41 % oxygen (O), and 6 % hydrogen (H). The rest are different substances, mainly nitrogen (N), sulphur (S) and ash. Because there are many vaporizable elements, such as oxygen and hydrogen in the wood’s dry matter, the flame is long.

50%Carbon in Periodic Table

41%Oxygen in Periodic Table

9%Hydrogen in Periodic Table

Applications of Oak Wood

Oak Wood - Material Table - Applications - Price
Source: wikipedia.org License: CC-BY SA 3.0

Oak wood is very resistant to insect and fungal attack because of its high tannin content. It also has very appealing grain markings, particularly when quartersawn. In Medieval Europe oak was the wood of choice for all wood construction, including beams, walls, doors, and floors.

Mechanical Properties of Oak Wood

Strength of Oak Wood

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape.

Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation. For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins. In case of tensional stress of a uniform bar (stress-strain curve), the Hooke’s law describes behaviour of a bar in the elastic region. The Young’s modulus of elasticity is the elastic modulus for tensile and compressive stress in the linear elasticity regime of a uniaxial deformation and is usually assessed by tensile tests.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Oak Wood

Ultimate tensile strength of Oak Wood is 70 MPa.

Yield Strength of Oak Wood

Yield strength of Oak Wood is N/A.

Modulus of Elasticity of Oak Wood

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Oak Wood is 9 GPa.

Hardness of Oak Wood

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

The Brinell hardness number (HB) is the load divided by the surface area of the indentation. The diameter of the impression is measured with a microscope with a superimposed scale. The Brinell hardness number is computed from the equation:

brinell hardness number - definition

Brinell hardness of Oak Wood is approximately  4 BHN (converted).

See also: Hardness of Materials

Strength of Materials

Material Table - Strength of Materials

Elasticity of Materials

Material Table - Elasticity of Materials

Hardness of Materials

Material Table - Hardness of Materials  

Thermal Properties of Oak Wood

Oak Wood – Melting Point

Melting point of Oak Wood is N/A.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure. In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium. For various chemical compounds and alloys, it is difficult to define the melting point, since they are usually a mixture of various chemical elements.

Oak Wood – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Oak Wood is 0.17 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

The thermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with temperature. For vapors, it also depends upon pressure. In general:

thermal conductivity - definition

Most materials are very nearly homogeneous, therefore we can usually write k = k (T). Similar definitions are associated with thermal conductivities in the y- and z-directions (ky, kz), but for an isotropic material the thermal conductivity is independent of the direction of transfer, kx = ky = kz = k.

Oak Wood – Specific Heat

Specific heat of Oak Wood is 2000 J/g K.

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats (or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg K or J/mol K.

Melting Point of Materials

Material Table - Melting Point

Thermal Conductivity of Materials

Material Table - Thermal Conductivity

Heat Capacity of Materials

Material Table - Heat Capacity

Properties and prices of other materials

material-table-in-8k-resolution

Galistan – Material Table – Applications – Price

About Galistan

Galinstan is a eutectic alloy composed of gallium, indium, and tin (hence its name, which is derived from the gallium, indium, and stannum, the Latin name for tin). Galistan melts at −19 °C (−2 °F) and is thus liquid at room temperature.

galistan properties density strength price

Summary

Name Galistan
Phase at STP N/A
Density 6440 kg/m3
Ultimate Tensile Strength N/A
Yield Strength N/A
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A
Melting Point -19 °C
Thermal Conductivity 16.5 W/mK
Heat Capacity 296 J/g K
Price 700 $/kg

Composition of Galistan

Galinstan is composed of 68.5% Ga, 21.5% In, and 10.0% Sn (by weight).

69%Gallium in Periodic Table

21%Indium in Periodic Table

10%Tin in Periodic Table

Applications of Galistan

Galistan - Material Table - Applications - Price
Source: wikipedia.org License: CC-BY SA 3.0

Due to the low toxicity and low reactivity of its component metals, in many applications, galinstan has replaced the toxic liquid mercury or the reactive NaK (sodium–potassium alloy). Metals or alloys like galinstan that are liquids at room temperature are often used by overclockers and enthusiasts as a thermal interface for computer hardware cooling, where their higher thermal conductivity compared to thermal pastes and thermal epoxys can allow slightly higher clock speeds and CPU processing power achieved in demonstrations and competitive overclocking.

Mechanical Properties of Galistan

Strength of Galistan

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape.

Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation. For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins. In case of tensional stress of a uniform bar (stress-strain curve), the Hooke’s law describes behaviour of a bar in the elastic region. The Young’s modulus of elasticity is the elastic modulus for tensile and compressive stress in the linear elasticity regime of a uniaxial deformation and is usually assessed by tensile tests.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Galistan

Ultimate tensile strength of Galistan is N/A.

Yield Strength of Galistan

Yield strength of Galistan is N/A.

Modulus of Elasticity of Galistan

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Galistan is N/A.

Hardness of Galistan

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

The Brinell hardness number (HB) is the load divided by the surface area of the indentation. The diameter of the impression is measured with a microscope with a superimposed scale. The Brinell hardness number is computed from the equation:

brinell hardness number - definition

Brinell hardness of Galistan is approximately  N/A.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Strength of Materials

Material Table - Strength of Materials

Elasticity of Materials

Material Table - Elasticity of Materials

Hardness of Materials

Material Table - Hardness of Materials  

Thermal Properties of Galistan

Galistan – Melting Point

Melting point of Galistan is -19 °C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure. In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium. For various chemical compounds and alloys, it is difficult to define the melting point, since they are usually a mixture of various chemical elements.

Galistan – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Galistan is 16.5 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

The thermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with temperature. For vapors, it also depends upon pressure. In general:

thermal conductivity - definition

Most materials are very nearly homogeneous, therefore we can usually write k = k (T). Similar definitions are associated with thermal conductivities in the y- and z-directions (ky, kz), but for an isotropic material the thermal conductivity is independent of the direction of transfer, kx = ky = kz = k.

Galistan – Specific Heat

Specific heat of Galistan is 296 J/g K.

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats (or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg K or J/mol K.

Melting Point of Materials

Material Table - Melting Point

Thermal Conductivity of Materials

Material Table - Thermal Conductivity

Heat Capacity of Materials

Material Table - Heat Capacity

Properties and prices of other materials

material-table-in-8k-resolution

Nickel Silver – Material Table – Applications – Price

About Nickel Silver

Nickel silver, known also as German silver, nickel brass or alpacca, is a copper alloy with nickel and often zinc. UNS C75700 nickel silver 65-12 copper alloy has good corrosion and tarnish-resistance, and high formability. Nickel silver is named due to its silvery appearance, but it contains no elemental silver unless plated.

nickel silver properties density strength price

Summary

Name Nickel Silver
Phase at STP N/A
Density 8690 kg/m3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 400 MPa
Yield Strength 170 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 117 GPa
Brinell Hardness 90 BHN
Melting Point 1040 °C
Thermal Conductivity 40 W/mK
Heat Capacity 377 J/g K
Price 35 $/kg

Composition of Nickel Silver

The usual formulation is 60% copper, 20% nickel and 20% zinc. For example the alloy C75700 contains 63.5 to 66.5% of Cu, 11.0 to 13.0% of Ni, 0.05% Pb max, 0.25% Fe max, 0.5% Mn max, and balance of Zn.

65%Iron in Periodic Table

12%Nickel in Periodic Table

23%Zinc in Periodic Table

Applications of Nickel Silver

Nickel silver alloys are used for decorative applications, jewellery, model making, musical instruments (e.g., flutes, clarinets), flutes ball point refills, screws, rivets and fishing rods, test probes.

Mechanical Properties of Nickel Silver

Strength of Nickel Silver

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape.

Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation. For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins. In case of tensional stress of a uniform bar (stress-strain curve), the Hooke’s law describes behaviour of a bar in the elastic region. The Young’s modulus of elasticity is the elastic modulus for tensile and compressive stress in the linear elasticity regime of a uniaxial deformation and is usually assessed by tensile tests.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Nickel Silver

Ultimate tensile strength of Nickel Silver is 400 MPa.

Yield Strength of Nickel Silver

Yield strength of Nickel Silver is 170 MPa.

Modulus of Elasticity of Nickel Silver

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Nickel Silver is 117 GPa.

Hardness of Nickel Silver

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

The Brinell hardness number (HB) is the load divided by the surface area of the indentation. The diameter of the impression is measured with a microscope with a superimposed scale. The Brinell hardness number is computed from the equation:

brinell hardness number - definition

Brinell hardness of Nickel Silver is approximately 90 BHN (converted).

See also: Hardness of Materials

Strength of Materials

Material Table - Strength of Materials

Elasticity of Materials

Material Table - Elasticity of Materials

Hardness of Materials

Material Table - Hardness of Materials  

Thermal Properties of Nickel Silver

Nickel Silver – Melting Point

Melting point of Nickel Silver is 1040 °C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure. In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium. For various chemical compounds and alloys, it is difficult to define the melting point, since they are usually a mixture of various chemical elements.

Nickel Silver – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Nickel Silver is 40 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

The thermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with temperature. For vapors, it also depends upon pressure. In general:

thermal conductivity - definition

Most materials are very nearly homogeneous, therefore we can usually write k = k (T). Similar definitions are associated with thermal conductivities in the y- and z-directions (ky, kz), but for an isotropic material the thermal conductivity is independent of the direction of transfer, kx = ky = kz = k.

Nickel Silver – Specific Heat

Specific heat of Nickel Silver is 377 J/g K.

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats (or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg K or J/mol K.

Melting Point of Materials

Material Table - Melting Point

Thermal Conductivity of Materials

Material Table - Thermal Conductivity

Heat Capacity of Materials

Material Table - Heat Capacity

Properties and prices of other materials

material-table-in-8k-resolution

Constantan – Material Table – Applications – Price

About Constantan

Constantan is a copper–nickel alloy consisting usually of 55% copper and 45% nickel and specific minor amounts of additional elements to achieve precise (almost constant) values for the temperature coefficient of resistivity. That means, its main feature is the low thermal variation of its resistivity, which is constant over a wide range of temperatures. Other alloys with similarly low temperature coefficients are known, such as manganin.

constantan properties density strength price

Summary

Name Constantan
Phase at STP N/A
Density 8860 kg/m3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 420 MPa
Yield Strength 150 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 162 GPa
Brinell Hardness 250 BHN
Melting Point 1207 °C
Thermal Conductivity 21.2 W/mK
Heat Capacity 390 J/g K
Price 28 $/kg

Composition of Constantan

Constantan contains 55 percent copper and 44 percent nickel.

55%Copper in Periodic Table

44%Nickel in Periodic Table

Applications of Constantan

Constantan is used for the measurement of temperature, the formation of thermocouple or resistance purpose.

Mechanical Properties of Constantan

Strength of Constantan

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape.

Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation. For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins. In case of tensional stress of a uniform bar (stress-strain curve), the Hooke’s law describes behaviour of a bar in the elastic region. The Young’s modulus of elasticity is the elastic modulus for tensile and compressive stress in the linear elasticity regime of a uniaxial deformation and is usually assessed by tensile tests.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Constantan

Ultimate tensile strength of Constantan is 420 MPa.

Yield Strength of Constantan

Yield strength of Constantan is 150 MPa.

Modulus of Elasticity of Constantan

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Constantan is 162 GPa.

Hardness of Constantan

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

The Brinell hardness number (HB) is the load divided by the surface area of the indentation. The diameter of the impression is measured with a microscope with a superimposed scale. The Brinell hardness number is computed from the equation:

brinell hardness number - definition

Brinell hardness of Constantan is approximately 250 BHN(converted).

See also: Hardness of Materials

Strength of Materials

Material Table - Strength of Materials

Elasticity of Materials

Material Table - Elasticity of Materials

Hardness of Materials

Material Table - Hardness of Materials  

Thermal Properties of Constantan

Constantan – Melting Point

Melting point of Constantan is 1207 °C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure. In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium. For various chemical compounds and alloys, it is difficult to define the melting point, since they are usually a mixture of various chemical elements.

Constantan – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Constantan is 21.2 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

The thermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with temperature. For vapors, it also depends upon pressure. In general:

thermal conductivity - definition

Most materials are very nearly homogeneous, therefore we can usually write k = k (T). Similar definitions are associated with thermal conductivities in the y- and z-directions (ky, kz), but for an isotropic material the thermal conductivity is independent of the direction of transfer, kx = ky = kz = k.

Constantan – Specific Heat

Specific heat of Constantan is 390 J/g K.

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats (or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg K or J/mol K.

Melting Point of Materials

Material Table - Melting Point

Thermal Conductivity of Materials

Material Table - Thermal Conductivity

Heat Capacity of Materials

Material Table - Heat Capacity

Properties and prices of other materials

material-table-in-8k-resolution

Invar – Material Table – Applications – Price

About Invar

Invar is an alloy of nickel and iron. This alloy is also known generically as FeNi36 (64FeNi in the US). Invar is notable for its uniquely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE or α). The name Invar comes from the word invariable, referring to its relative lack of expansion or contraction with temperature changes. Invar has a near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion, making it useful in constructing precision instruments whose dimensions need to remain constant in spite of varying temperature. The discovery of the alloy was made in 1896 by Swiss physicist Charles Édouard Guillaume for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1920.

invar properties density strength price

Summary

Name Invar
Phase at STP N/A
Density 8100 kg/m3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 445 MPa
Yield Strength 280 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 135 GPa
Brinell Hardness 200 BHN
Melting Point 1687 °C
Thermal Conductivity 12 W/mK
Heat Capacity 505 J/g K
Price 29 $/kg

Composition of Invar

Invar, alloy of iron that expands very little when heated; it contains 64 percent iron and 36 percent nickel.

64%Iron in Periodic Table

36%Nickel in Periodic Table

Applications of Invar

Invar - Material Table - Applications - Price
Source: wikipedia.org License: CC-BY SA 3.0

Invar was formerly used for absolute standards of length measurement and is now used for surveying tapes and in watches and various other temperature-sensitive devices. Invar is used where high dimensional stability is required, such as precision instruments, clocks, seismic creep gauges, television shadow-mask frames, valves in engines and large aerostructure molds.

Mechanical Properties of Invar

Strength of Invar

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape.

Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation. For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins. In case of tensional stress of a uniform bar (stress-strain curve), the Hooke’s law describes behaviour of a bar in the elastic region. The Young’s modulus of elasticity is the elastic modulus for tensile and compressive stress in the linear elasticity regime of a uniaxial deformation and is usually assessed by tensile tests.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Invar

Ultimate tensile strength of Invar is 445 MPa.

Yield Strength of Invar

Yield strength of Invar is 280 MPa.

Modulus of Elasticity of Invar

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Invar is 135 GPa.

Hardness of Invar

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

The Brinell hardness number (HB) is the load divided by the surface area of the indentation. The diameter of the impression is measured with a microscope with a superimposed scale. The Brinell hardness number is computed from the equation:

brinell hardness number - definition

Brinell hardness of Invar is approximately 200 BHN (converted).

See also: Hardness of Materials

Strength of Materials

Material Table - Strength of Materials

Elasticity of Materials

Material Table - Elasticity of Materials

Hardness of Materials

Material Table - Hardness of Materials  

Thermal Properties of Invar

Invar – Melting Point

Melting point of Invar is 1687 °C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure. In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium. For various chemical compounds and alloys, it is difficult to define the melting point, since they are usually a mixture of various chemical elements.

Invar – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Invar is 12 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

The thermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with temperature. For vapors, it also depends upon pressure. In general:

thermal conductivity - definition

Most materials are very nearly homogeneous, therefore we can usually write k = k (T). Similar definitions are associated with thermal conductivities in the y- and z-directions (ky, kz), but for an isotropic material the thermal conductivity is independent of the direction of transfer, kx = ky = kz = k.

Invar – Specific Heat

Specific heat of Invar is 505 J/g K.

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats (or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg K or J/mol K.

Melting Point of Materials

Material Table - Melting Point

Thermal Conductivity of Materials

Material Table - Thermal Conductivity

Heat Capacity of Materials

Material Table - Heat Capacity

Properties and prices of other materials

material-table-in-8k-resolution

White Gold – Material Table – Applications – Price

About White Gold

Pure gold is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold is thought to have been produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, from the collision of neutron stars. White gold is a gold–silver (or nickel or palladium) alloy widely used for specialized jewelry.

white gold properties density strength price

Summary

Name White Gold
Phase at STP N/A
Density 15900 kg/m3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 350 MPa
Yield Strength N/A
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 75 GPa
Brinell Hardness 100 BHN
Melting Point 937 °C
Thermal Conductivity 250 W/mK
Heat Capacity 220 J/g K
Price 45000 $/kg

Composition of White Gold

Examples of the common alloys for 18K white gold include: 18K white gold: 75% gold, 25% of palladium or platinum and 18K white gold: 75% gold, 10% palladium, 10% nickel and 5% zinc .A common white gold formulation also consists of 90 wt.% gold and 10 wt.% nickel. Copper can be added to increase malleability. The alloys used in the jewelry industry are gold–palladium–silver and gold–nickel–copper–zinc. Palladium and nickel act as primary bleaching agents for gold; zinc acts as a secondary bleaching agent to attenuate the color of copper.

75%Gold in Periodic Table

10%Palladium in Periodic Table

10%Nickel in Periodic Table

Applications of White Gold

White Gold - Material Table - Applications - Price
Source: wikipedia.org License: CC-BY SA 3.0

Gold is used extensively in jewellery, either in its pure form or as an alloy. About 75% of all gold produced is used in the jewelry industry. Pure gold is too soft to stand up to the stresses applied to many jewelry items. Craftsmen learned that alloying gold with other metals such as copper, silver, and platinum would increase its durability and it also changes its color. The term ‘carat’ indicates the amount of gold present in an alloy. 24-carat is pure gold, but it is very soft. 18- and 9-carat gold alloys are commonly used because they are more durable. White gold’s properties vary depending on the metals used and their proportions. As a result, white gold alloys can be used for many different purposes; while a nickel alloy is hard and strong, and, therefore, good for rings and pins, gold–palladium alloys are soft, pliable, and good for white gold gemstone settings.

Mechanical Properties of White Gold

Strength of White Gold

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape.

Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation. For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins. In case of tensional stress of a uniform bar (stress-strain curve), the Hooke’s law describes behaviour of a bar in the elastic region. The Young’s modulus of elasticity is the elastic modulus for tensile and compressive stress in the linear elasticity regime of a uniaxial deformation and is usually assessed by tensile tests.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of White Gold

Ultimate tensile strength of White Gold is 350 MPa.

Yield Strength of White Gold

Yield strength of White Gold is N/A.

Modulus of Elasticity of White Gold

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of White Gold is 75 GPa.

Hardness of White Gold

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

The Brinell hardness number (HB) is the load divided by the surface area of the indentation. The diameter of the impression is measured with a microscope with a superimposed scale. The Brinell hardness number is computed from the equation:

brinell hardness number - definition

Brinell hardness of White Gold is approximately 100 BHN(converted).

See also: Hardness of Materials

Strength of Materials

Material Table - Strength of Materials

Elasticity of Materials

Material Table - Elasticity of Materials

Hardness of Materials

Material Table - Hardness of Materials  

Thermal Properties of White Gold

White Gold – Melting Point

Melting point of White Gold is 937 °C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure. In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium. For various chemical compounds and alloys, it is difficult to define the melting point, since they are usually a mixture of various chemical elements.

White Gold – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of White Gold is 250 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

The thermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with temperature. For vapors, it also depends upon pressure. In general:

thermal conductivity - definition

Most materials are very nearly homogeneous, therefore we can usually write k = k (T). Similar definitions are associated with thermal conductivities in the y- and z-directions (ky, kz), but for an isotropic material the thermal conductivity is independent of the direction of transfer, kx = ky = kz = k.

White Gold – Specific Heat

Specific heat of White Gold is 220 J/g K.

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats (or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg K or J/mol K.

Melting Point of Materials

Material Table - Melting Point

Thermal Conductivity of Materials

Material Table - Thermal Conductivity

Heat Capacity of Materials

Material Table - Heat Capacity

Properties and prices of other materials

material-table-in-8k-resolution