Copper – Periodic Table – Atomic Properties

Copper-density-atomic-number-mass-radius

Copper is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement.

Summary

Element Copper
Atomic number 29
Atomic mass [amu] 63.546
Atomic mass [pm] 132
Density at STP [g/cm3] 8.92
Number of protons 29
Number of neutrons (typical isotopes) 63; 65
Number of electrons 29
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s1
Oxidation states +1,2
Electron affinity [kJ/mol] 118.4
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.9
First ionization energy [eV] 7.7264

Atomic Number – Protons, Electrons and Neutrons in Copper

Proton Number - Atomic NumberCopper is a chemical element with atomic number 29 which means there are 29 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Copper are 63; 65.

Atomic Mass of Copper

Atomic mass of Copper is 63.546 u. 

The atomic mass is the mass of an atom. The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass refers to the mass of a single particle, and therefore is tied to a certain specific isotope of an element. The atomic mass is carried by the atomic nucleus, which occupies only about 10-12 of the total volume of the atom or less, but it contains all the positive charge and at least 99.95% of the total mass of the atom. Note that, each element may contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance.

Atomic Radius of Copper

The atomic radius of Copper atom is 132pm (covalent radius).

Atomic Radius of Chemical Elements

It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus. However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. Therefore, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius.

Electrons and Electron Configuration

The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Copper is 29. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.

Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.

Electron configuration of Copper is [Ar] 3d10 4s1.

Possible oxidation states are +1,2.

Density of Copper

Density of Copper is 8.92g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances are at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

Atomic Masses of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic mass

Atomic Radii of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic radius

Densities of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - density

Copper-protons-neutrons-electrons-configuration

Copper-affinity-electronegativity-ionization

Electron Affinity – Copper

Electron affinity of Copper is 118.4 kJ/mol.

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as:

the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom or molecule (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion.

X + e → X + energy        Affinity = – ∆H

In other words, it can be expressed as the neutral atom’s likelihood of gaining an electron. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies.

Electronegativity of Copper

Electronegativity of Copper is 1.9.

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards this atom. For this purposes, a dimensionless quantity the Pauling scale, symbol χ, is the most commonly used.

The electronegativity of Copper is: χ = 1.9

First Ionization Energy of Copper

First Ionization Energy of Copper is 7.7264 eV.

Ionization energy, also called ionization potential, is the energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral atom.

X + energy → X+ + e

where X is any atom or molecule capable of being ionized, X+ is that atom or molecule with an electron removed (positive ion), and e is the removed electron.

A Copper atom, for example, requires the following ionization energy to remove the outermost electron.

Cu + IE → Cu+ + e        IE = 7.7264 eV

Electronegativity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electronegativity

Ionization Energy of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - ionization energy

Copper-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

 

Properties of other elements

Copper - Comparison of Atomic Properties

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Copper