Boron – Periodic Table – Atomic Properties

Boron-density-atomic-number-mass-radius

Significant concentrations of boron occur on the Earth in compounds known as the borate minerals. There are over 100 different borate minerals, but the most common are: borax, kernite, ulexite etc. Natural boron consists primarily of two stable isotopes, 11B (80.1%) and 10B (19.9%). In nuclear industry boron is commonly used as a neutron absorber due to the high neutron cross-section of isotope 10B. Its (n,alpha) reaction cross-section for thermal neutrons is about 3840 barns (for 0.025 eV neutron). Isotope 11B has absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons about 0.005 barns (for 0.025 eV neutron). Most of (n,alpha) reactions of thermal neutrons are 10B(n,alpha)7Li reactions accompanied by 0.48 MeV gamma emission.

Summary

Element Boron
Atomic number 5
Atomic mass [amu] 10.811
Atomic mass [pm] 84
Density at STP [g/cm3] 2.46
Number of protons 5
Number of neutrons (typical isotopes) 10; 11
Number of electrons 5
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p1
Oxidation states -5; -1; +1; +2; +3
Electron affinity [kJ/mol] 26.7
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.04
First ionization energy [eV] 8.298

Atomic Number – Protons, Electrons and Neutrons in Boron

Proton Number - Atomic NumberBoron is a chemical element with atomic number 5 which means there are 5 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Boron are 10; 11.

Atomic Mass of Boron

Atomic mass of Boron is 10.811 u. 

The atomic mass is the mass of an atom. The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass refers to the mass of a single particle, and therefore is tied to a certain specific isotope of an element. The atomic mass is carried by the atomic nucleus, which occupies only about 10-12 of the total volume of the atom or less, but it contains all the positive charge and at least 99.95% of the total mass of the atom. Note that, each element may contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance.

Atomic Radius of Boron

The atomic radius of Boron atom is 84pm (covalent radius).

Atomic Radius of Chemical Elements

It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus. However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. Therefore, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius.

Electrons and Electron Configuration

The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Boron is 5. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.

Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.

Electron configuration of Boron is [He] 2s2 2p1.

Possible oxidation states are -5; -1; +1; +2; +3.

Density of Boron

Density of Boron is 2.46g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances are at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

Atomic Masses of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic mass

Atomic Radii of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic radius

Densities of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - density

Boron-protons-neutrons-electrons-configuration

Boron-affinity-electronegativity-ionization

Electron Affinity – Boron

Electron affinity of Boron is 26.7 kJ/mol.

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as:

the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom or molecule (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion.

X + e → X + energy        Affinity = – ∆H

In other words, it can be expressed as the neutral atom’s likelihood of gaining an electron. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies.

Electronegativity of Boron

Electronegativity of Boron is 2.04.

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards this atom. For this purposes, a dimensionless quantity the Pauling scale, symbol χ, is the most commonly used.

The electronegativity of Boron is: χ = 2.04

First Ionization Energy of Boron

First Ionization Energy of Boron is 8.298 eV.

Ionization energy, also called ionization potential, is the energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral atom.

X + energy → X+ + e

where X is any atom or molecule capable of being ionized, X+ is that atom or molecule with an electron removed (positive ion), and e is the removed electron.

A Boron atom, for example, requires the following ionization energy to remove the outermost electron.

B + IE → B+ + e        IE = 8.298 eV

Electronegativity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electronegativity

Ionization Energy of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - ionization energy

Boron-periodic-table

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Properties of other elements

Boron - Comparison of Atomic Properties

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Boron