Bismuth – Periodic Table – Atomic Properties

Bismuth-density-atomic-number-mass-radius

Bismuth is a brittle metal with a silvery white color when freshly produced, but surface oxidation can give it a pink tinge. Bismuth is a pentavalent post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens, chemically resembles its lighter homologs arsenic and antimony.

Summary

Element Bismuth
Atomic number 83
Atomic mass [amu] 208.9804
Atomic mass [pm] 148
Density at STP [g/cm3] 9.78
Number of protons 83
Number of neutrons (typical isotopes) 209
Number of electrons 83
Electron configuration [Hg] 6p3
Oxidation states +3,5
Electron affinity [kJ/mol] 91.2
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.02
First ionization energy [eV] 7.289

Atomic Number – Protons, Electrons and Neutrons in Bismuth

Proton Number - Atomic NumberBismuth is a chemical element with atomic number 83 which means there are 83 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Bismuth are 209.

Atomic Mass of Bismuth

Atomic mass of Bismuth is 208.9804 u. 

The atomic mass is the mass of an atom. The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass refers to the mass of a single particle, and therefore is tied to a certain specific isotope of an element. The atomic mass is carried by the atomic nucleus, which occupies only about 10-12 of the total volume of the atom or less, but it contains all the positive charge and at least 99.95% of the total mass of the atom. Note that, each element may contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance.

Atomic Radius of Bismuth

The atomic radius of Bismuth atom is 148pm (covalent radius).

Atomic Radius of Chemical Elements

It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus. However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. Therefore, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius.

Electrons and Electron Configuration

The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Bismuth is 83. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.

Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.

Electron configuration of Bismuth is [Hg] 6p3.

Possible oxidation states are +3,5.

Density of Bismuth

Density of Bismuth is 9.78g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances are at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

Atomic Masses of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic mass

Atomic Radii of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic radius

Densities of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - density

Bismuth-protons-neutrons-electrons-configuration

Bismuth-affinity-electronegativity-ionization

Electron Affinity – Bismuth

Electron affinity of Bismuth is 91.2 kJ/mol.

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as:

the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom or molecule (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion.

X + e → X + energy        Affinity = – ∆H

In other words, it can be expressed as the neutral atom’s likelihood of gaining an electron. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies.

Electronegativity of Bismuth

Electronegativity of Bismuth is 2.02.

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards this atom. For this purposes, a dimensionless quantity the Pauling scale, symbol χ, is the most commonly used.

The electronegativity of Bismuth is: χ = 2.02

First Ionization Energy of Bismuth

First Ionization Energy of Bismuth is 7.289 eV.

Ionization energy, also called ionization potential, is the energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral atom.

X + energy → X+ + e

where X is any atom or molecule capable of being ionized, X+ is that atom or molecule with an electron removed (positive ion), and e is the removed electron.

A Bismuth atom, for example, requires the following ionization energy to remove the outermost electron.

Bi + IE → Bi+ + e        IE = 7.289 eV

Electronegativity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electronegativity

Ionization Energy of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - ionization energy

Bismuth-periodic-table

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Properties of other elements

Bismuth - Comparison of Atomic Properties

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Bismuth

 

Thallium – Periodic Table – Atomic Properties

Thallium-density-atomic-number-mass-radius

Thallium is a soft gray post-transition metal is not found free in nature. Commercially, thallium is produced as a byproduct from refining of heavy metal sulfide ores. Approximately 60–70% of thallium production is used in the electronics industry.

Summary

Element Thallium
Atomic number 81
Atomic mass [amu] 204.3833
Atomic mass [pm] 145
Density at STP [g/cm3] 11.85
Number of protons 81
Number of neutrons (typical isotopes) 203, 205
Number of electrons 81
Electron configuration [Hg] 6p1
Oxidation states +1,3
Electron affinity [kJ/mol] 19.2
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.62
First ionization energy [eV] 6.1083

Atomic Number – Protons, Electrons and Neutrons in Thallium

Proton Number - Atomic NumberThallium is a chemical element with atomic number 81 which means there are 81 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Thallium are 203, 205.

Atomic Mass of Thallium

Atomic mass of Thallium is 204.3833 u. 

The atomic mass is the mass of an atom. The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass refers to the mass of a single particle, and therefore is tied to a certain specific isotope of an element. The atomic mass is carried by the atomic nucleus, which occupies only about 10-12 of the total volume of the atom or less, but it contains all the positive charge and at least 99.95% of the total mass of the atom. Note that, each element may contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance.

Atomic Radius of Thallium

The atomic radius of Thallium atom is 145pm (covalent radius).

Atomic Radius of Chemical Elements

It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus. However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. Therefore, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius.

Electrons and Electron Configuration

The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Thallium is 81. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.

Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.

Electron configuration of Thallium is [Hg] 6p1.

Possible oxidation states are +1,3.

Density of Thallium

Density of Thallium is 11.85g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances are at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

Atomic Masses of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic mass

Atomic Radii of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic radius

Densities of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - density

Thallium-protons-neutrons-electrons-configuration

Thallium-affinity-electronegativity-ionization

Electron Affinity – Thallium

Electron affinity of Thallium is 19.2 kJ/mol.

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as:

the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom or molecule (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion.

X + e → X + energy        Affinity = – ∆H

In other words, it can be expressed as the neutral atom’s likelihood of gaining an electron. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies.

Electronegativity of Thallium

Electronegativity of Thallium is 1.62.

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards this atom. For this purposes, a dimensionless quantity the Pauling scale, symbol χ, is the most commonly used.

The electronegativity of Thallium is: χ = 1.62

First Ionization Energy of Thallium

First Ionization Energy of Thallium is 6.1083 eV.

Ionization energy, also called ionization potential, is the energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral atom.

X + energy → X+ + e

where X is any atom or molecule capable of being ionized, X+ is that atom or molecule with an electron removed (positive ion), and e is the removed electron.

A Thallium atom, for example, requires the following ionization energy to remove the outermost electron.

Tl + IE → Tl+ + e        IE = 6.1083 eV

Electronegativity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electronegativity

Ionization Energy of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - ionization energy

Thallium-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

 

Properties of other elements

Thallium - Comparison of Atomic Properties

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Thallium

 

Lead – Periodic Table – Atomic Properties

Lead-density-atomic-number-mass-radius

Lead is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. Lead is widely used as a gamma shield. Major advantage of lead shield is in its compactness due to its higher density. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and concludes three major decay chains of heavier elements.

Summary

Element Lead
Atomic number 82
Atomic mass [amu] 207.2
Atomic mass [pm] 146
Density at STP [g/cm3] 11.34
Number of protons 82
Number of neutrons (typical isotopes) 204-208
Number of electrons 82
Electron configuration [Hg] 6p2
Oxidation states +2,4
Electron affinity [kJ/mol] 35.1
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.33
First ionization energy [eV] 7.4167

Atomic Number – Protons, Electrons and Neutrons in Lead

Proton Number - Atomic NumberLead is a chemical element with atomic number 82 which means there are 82 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Lead are 204-208.

Atomic Mass of Lead

Atomic mass of Lead is 207.2 u. 

The atomic mass is the mass of an atom. The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass refers to the mass of a single particle, and therefore is tied to a certain specific isotope of an element. The atomic mass is carried by the atomic nucleus, which occupies only about 10-12 of the total volume of the atom or less, but it contains all the positive charge and at least 99.95% of the total mass of the atom. Note that, each element may contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance.

Atomic Radius of Lead

The atomic radius of Lead atom is 146pm (covalent radius).

Atomic Radius of Chemical Elements

It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus. However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. Therefore, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius.

Electrons and Electron Configuration

The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Lead is 82. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.

Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.

Electron configuration of Lead is [Hg] 6p2.

Possible oxidation states are +2,4.

Density of Lead

Density of Lead is 11.34g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances are at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

Atomic Masses of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic mass

Atomic Radii of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic radius

Densities of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - density

Lead-protons-neutrons-electrons-configuration

Lead-affinity-electronegativity-ionization

Electron Affinity – Lead

Electron affinity of Lead is 35.1 kJ/mol.

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as:

the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom or molecule (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion.

X + e → X + energy        Affinity = – ∆H

In other words, it can be expressed as the neutral atom’s likelihood of gaining an electron. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies.

Electronegativity of Lead

Electronegativity of Lead is 2.33.

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards this atom. For this purposes, a dimensionless quantity the Pauling scale, symbol χ, is the most commonly used.

The electronegativity of Lead is: χ = 2.33

First Ionization Energy of Lead

First Ionization Energy of Lead is 7.4167 eV.

Ionization energy, also called ionization potential, is the energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral atom.

X + energy → X+ + e

where X is any atom or molecule capable of being ionized, X+ is that atom or molecule with an electron removed (positive ion), and e is the removed electron.

A Lead atom, for example, requires the following ionization energy to remove the outermost electron.

Pb + IE → Pb+ + e        IE = 7.4167 eV

Electronegativity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electronegativity

Ionization Energy of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - ionization energy

Lead-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

 

Properties of other elements

Lead - Comparison of Atomic Properties

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Lead

 

Gold – Periodic Table – Atomic Properties

Gold-density-atomic-number-mass-radius

Gold is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold is thought to have been produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, from the collision of neutron stars.

Summary

Element Gold
Atomic number 79
Atomic mass [amu] 196.9665
Atomic mass [pm] 136
Density at STP [g/cm3] 19.3
Number of protons 79
Number of neutrons (typical isotopes) 197
Number of electrons 79
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Oxidation states +1,3
Electron affinity [kJ/mol] 222.8
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.54
First ionization energy [eV] 9.2257

Atomic Number – Protons, Electrons and Neutrons in Gold

Proton Number - Atomic NumberGold is a chemical element with atomic number 79 which means there are 79 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Gold are 197.

Atomic Mass of Gold

Atomic mass of Gold is 196.9665 u. 

The atomic mass is the mass of an atom. The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass refers to the mass of a single particle, and therefore is tied to a certain specific isotope of an element. The atomic mass is carried by the atomic nucleus, which occupies only about 10-12 of the total volume of the atom or less, but it contains all the positive charge and at least 99.95% of the total mass of the atom. Note that, each element may contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance.

Atomic Radius of Gold

The atomic radius of Gold atom is 136pm (covalent radius).

Atomic Radius of Chemical Elements

It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus. However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. Therefore, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius.

Electrons and Electron Configuration

The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Gold is 79. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.

Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.

Electron configuration of Gold is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1.

Possible oxidation states are +1,3.

Density of Gold

Density of Gold is 19.3g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances are at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

Atomic Masses of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic mass

Atomic Radii of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic radius

Densities of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - density

Gold-protons-neutrons-electrons-configuration

Gold-affinity-electronegativity-ionization

Electron Affinity – Gold

Electron affinity of Gold is 222.8 kJ/mol.

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as:

the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom or molecule (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion.

X + e → X + energy        Affinity = – ∆H

In other words, it can be expressed as the neutral atom’s likelihood of gaining an electron. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies.

Electronegativity of Gold

Electronegativity of Gold is 2.54.

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards this atom. For this purposes, a dimensionless quantity the Pauling scale, symbol χ, is the most commonly used.

The electronegativity of Gold is: χ = 2.54

First Ionization Energy of Gold

First Ionization Energy of Gold is 9.2257 eV.

Ionization energy, also called ionization potential, is the energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral atom.

X + energy → X+ + e

where X is any atom or molecule capable of being ionized, X+ is that atom or molecule with an electron removed (positive ion), and e is the removed electron.

A Gold atom, for example, requires the following ionization energy to remove the outermost electron.

Au + IE → Au+ + e        IE = 9.2257 eV

Electronegativity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electronegativity

Ionization Energy of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - ionization energy

Gold-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

 

Properties of other elements

Gold - Comparison of Atomic Properties

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Gold

 

Mercury – Periodic Table – Atomic Properties

Mercury-density-atomic-number-mass-radius

Mercury is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum. Mercury is a heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure.

Summary

Element Mercury
Atomic number 80
Atomic mass [amu] 200.59
Atomic mass [pm] 132
Density at STP [g/cm3] 13.534
Number of protons 80
Number of neutrons (typical isotopes) 198-202
Number of electrons 80
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
Oxidation states +1,2
Electron affinity [kJ/mol]
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2
First ionization energy [eV] 10.4375

Atomic Number – Protons, Electrons and Neutrons in Mercury

Proton Number - Atomic NumberMercury is a chemical element with atomic number 80 which means there are 80 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Mercury are 198-202.

Atomic Mass of Mercury

Atomic mass of Mercury is 200.59 u. 

The atomic mass is the mass of an atom. The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass refers to the mass of a single particle, and therefore is tied to a certain specific isotope of an element. The atomic mass is carried by the atomic nucleus, which occupies only about 10-12 of the total volume of the atom or less, but it contains all the positive charge and at least 99.95% of the total mass of the atom. Note that, each element may contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance.

Atomic Radius of Mercury

The atomic radius of Mercury atom is 132pm (covalent radius).

Atomic Radius of Chemical Elements

It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus. However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. Therefore, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius.

Electrons and Electron Configuration

The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Mercury is 80. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.

Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.

Electron configuration of Mercury is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2.

Possible oxidation states are +1,2.

Density of Mercury

Density of Mercury is 13.534g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances are at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

Atomic Masses of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic mass

Atomic Radii of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic radius

Densities of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - density

Mercury-protons-neutrons-electrons-configuration

Mercury-affinity-electronegativity-ionization

Electron Affinity – Mercury

Electron affinity of Mercury is — kJ/mol.

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as:

the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom or molecule (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion.

X + e → X + energy        Affinity = – ∆H

In other words, it can be expressed as the neutral atom’s likelihood of gaining an electron. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies.

Electronegativity of Mercury

Electronegativity of Mercury is 2.

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards this atom. For this purposes, a dimensionless quantity the Pauling scale, symbol χ, is the most commonly used.

The electronegativity of Mercury is: χ = 2

First Ionization Energy of Mercury

First Ionization Energy of Mercury is 10.4375 eV.

Ionization energy, also called ionization potential, is the energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral atom.

X + energy → X+ + e

where X is any atom or molecule capable of being ionized, X+ is that atom or molecule with an electron removed (positive ion), and e is the removed electron.

A Mercury atom, for example, requires the following ionization energy to remove the outermost electron.

Hg + IE → Hg+ + e        IE = 10.4375 eV

Electronegativity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electronegativity

Ionization Energy of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - ionization energy

Mercury-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

 

Properties of other elements

Mercury - Comparison of Atomic Properties

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Mercury

 

Iridium – Periodic Table – Atomic Properties

Iridium-density-atomic-number-mass-radius

Iridium is a very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum group, iridium is generally credited with being the second densest element (after osmium). It is also the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at temperatures as high as 2000 °C.

Summary

Element Iridium
Atomic number 77
Atomic mass [amu] 192.217
Atomic mass [pm] 141
Density at STP [g/cm3] 22.65
Number of protons 77
Number of neutrons (typical isotopes) 191, 193
Number of electrons 77
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2
Oxidation states +3,4
Electron affinity [kJ/mol] 151
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.2
First ionization energy [eV] 9.1

Atomic Number – Protons, Electrons and Neutrons in Iridium

Proton Number - Atomic NumberIridium is a chemical element with atomic number 77 which means there are 77 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Iridium are 191, 193.

Atomic Mass of Iridium

Atomic mass of Iridium is 192.217 u. 

The atomic mass is the mass of an atom. The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass refers to the mass of a single particle, and therefore is tied to a certain specific isotope of an element. The atomic mass is carried by the atomic nucleus, which occupies only about 10-12 of the total volume of the atom or less, but it contains all the positive charge and at least 99.95% of the total mass of the atom. Note that, each element may contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance.

Atomic Radius of Iridium

The atomic radius of Iridium atom is 141pm (covalent radius).

Atomic Radius of Chemical Elements

It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus. However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. Therefore, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius.

Electrons and Electron Configuration

The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Iridium is 77. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.

Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.

Electron configuration of Iridium is [Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2.

Possible oxidation states are +3,4.

Density of Iridium

Density of Iridium is 22.65g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances are at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

Atomic Masses of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic mass

Atomic Radii of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic radius

Densities of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - density

Iridium-protons-neutrons-electrons-configuration

Iridium-affinity-electronegativity-ionization

Electron Affinity – Iridium

Electron affinity of Iridium is 151 kJ/mol.

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as:

the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom or molecule (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion.

X + e → X + energy        Affinity = – ∆H

In other words, it can be expressed as the neutral atom’s likelihood of gaining an electron. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies.

Electronegativity of Iridium

Electronegativity of Iridium is 2.2.

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards this atom. For this purposes, a dimensionless quantity the Pauling scale, symbol χ, is the most commonly used.

The electronegativity of Iridium is: χ = 2.2

First Ionization Energy of Iridium

First Ionization Energy of Iridium is 9.1 eV.

Ionization energy, also called ionization potential, is the energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral atom.

X + energy → X+ + e

where X is any atom or molecule capable of being ionized, X+ is that atom or molecule with an electron removed (positive ion), and e is the removed electron.

A Iridium atom, for example, requires the following ionization energy to remove the outermost electron.

Ir + IE → Ir+ + e        IE = 9.1 eV

Electronegativity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electronegativity

Ionization Energy of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - ionization energy

Iridium-periodic-table

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Properties of other elements

Iridium - Comparison of Atomic Properties

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Iridium

 

Platinum – Periodic Table – Atomic Properties

Platinum-density-atomic-number-mass-radius

Platinum is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. It has remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a noble metal. Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry.

Summary

Element Platinum
Atomic number 78
Atomic mass [amu] 195.078
Atomic mass [pm] 136
Density at STP [g/cm3] 21.09
Number of protons 78
Number of neutrons (typical isotopes) 194, 195, 196, 198
Number of electrons 78
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Oxidation states +2,4
Electron affinity [kJ/mol] 205.3
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.28
First ionization energy [eV] 9

Atomic Number – Protons, Electrons and Neutrons in Platinum

Proton Number - Atomic NumberPlatinum is a chemical element with atomic number 78 which means there are 78 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Platinum are 194, 195, 196, 198.

Atomic Mass of Platinum

Atomic mass of Platinum is 195.078 u. 

The atomic mass is the mass of an atom. The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass refers to the mass of a single particle, and therefore is tied to a certain specific isotope of an element. The atomic mass is carried by the atomic nucleus, which occupies only about 10-12 of the total volume of the atom or less, but it contains all the positive charge and at least 99.95% of the total mass of the atom. Note that, each element may contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance.

Atomic Radius of Platinum

The atomic radius of Platinum atom is 136pm (covalent radius).

Atomic Radius of Chemical Elements

It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus. However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. Therefore, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius.

Electrons and Electron Configuration

The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Platinum is 78. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.

Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.

Electron configuration of Platinum is [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1.

Possible oxidation states are +2,4.

Density of Platinum

Density of Platinum is 21.09g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances are at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

Atomic Masses of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic mass

Atomic Radii of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic radius

Densities of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - density

Platinum-protons-neutrons-electrons-configuration

Platinum-affinity-electronegativity-ionization

Electron Affinity – Platinum

Electron affinity of Platinum is 205.3 kJ/mol.

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as:

the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom or molecule (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion.

X + e → X + energy        Affinity = – ∆H

In other words, it can be expressed as the neutral atom’s likelihood of gaining an electron. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies.

Electronegativity of Platinum

Electronegativity of Platinum is 2.28.

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards this atom. For this purposes, a dimensionless quantity the Pauling scale, symbol χ, is the most commonly used.

The electronegativity of Platinum is: χ = 2.28

First Ionization Energy of Platinum

First Ionization Energy of Platinum is 9 eV.

Ionization energy, also called ionization potential, is the energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral atom.

X + energy → X+ + e

where X is any atom or molecule capable of being ionized, X+ is that atom or molecule with an electron removed (positive ion), and e is the removed electron.

A Platinum atom, for example, requires the following ionization energy to remove the outermost electron.

Pt + IE → Pt+ + e        IE = 9 eV

Electronegativity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electronegativity

Ionization Energy of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - ionization energy

Platinum-periodic-table

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Properties of other elements

Platinum - Comparison of Atomic Properties

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Platinum

 

Rhenium – Periodic Table – Atomic Properties

Rhenium-density-atomic-number-mass-radius

Rhenium is a silvery-white, heavy, third-row transition metal in group 7 of the periodic table.

Summary

Element Rhenium
Atomic number 75
Atomic mass [amu] 186.207
Atomic mass [pm] 151
Density at STP [g/cm3] 21.02
Number of protons 75
Number of neutrons (typical isotopes) 185, 187
Number of electrons 75
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2
Oxidation states +4,67
Electron affinity [kJ/mol] 14.5
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.9
First ionization energy [eV] 7.88

Atomic Number – Protons, Electrons and Neutrons in Rhenium

Proton Number - Atomic NumberRhenium is a chemical element with atomic number 75 which means there are 75 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Rhenium are 185, 187.

Atomic Mass of Rhenium

Atomic mass of Rhenium is 186.207 u. 

The atomic mass is the mass of an atom. The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass refers to the mass of a single particle, and therefore is tied to a certain specific isotope of an element. The atomic mass is carried by the atomic nucleus, which occupies only about 10-12 of the total volume of the atom or less, but it contains all the positive charge and at least 99.95% of the total mass of the atom. Note that, each element may contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance.

Atomic Radius of Rhenium

The atomic radius of Rhenium atom is 151pm (covalent radius).

Atomic Radius of Chemical Elements

It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus. However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. Therefore, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius.

Electrons and Electron Configuration

The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Rhenium is 75. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.

Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.

Electron configuration of Rhenium is [Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2.

Possible oxidation states are +4,67.

Density of Rhenium

Density of Rhenium is 21.02g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances are at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

Atomic Masses of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic mass

Atomic Radii of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic radius

Densities of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - density

Rhenium-protons-neutrons-electrons-configuration

Rhenium-affinity-electronegativity-ionization

Electron Affinity – Rhenium

Electron affinity of Rhenium is 14.5 kJ/mol.

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as:

the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom or molecule (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion.

X + e → X + energy        Affinity = – ∆H

In other words, it can be expressed as the neutral atom’s likelihood of gaining an electron. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies.

Electronegativity of Rhenium

Electronegativity of Rhenium is 1.9.

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards this atom. For this purposes, a dimensionless quantity the Pauling scale, symbol χ, is the most commonly used.

The electronegativity of Rhenium is: χ = 1.9

First Ionization Energy of Rhenium

First Ionization Energy of Rhenium is 7.88 eV.

Ionization energy, also called ionization potential, is the energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral atom.

X + energy → X+ + e

where X is any atom or molecule capable of being ionized, X+ is that atom or molecule with an electron removed (positive ion), and e is the removed electron.

A Rhenium atom, for example, requires the following ionization energy to remove the outermost electron.

Re + IE → Re+ + e        IE = 7.88 eV

Electronegativity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electronegativity

Ionization Energy of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - ionization energy

Rhenium-periodic-table

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Properties of other elements

Rhenium - Comparison of Atomic Properties

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Rhenium

 

Osmium – Periodic Table – Atomic Properties

Osmium-density-atomic-number-mass-radius

Osmium is a hard, brittle, bluish-white transition metal in the platinum group that is found as a trace element in alloys, mostly in platinum ores. Osmium is the densest naturally occurring element, with a density of 22.59 g/cm3. But its density pales by comparison to the densities of exotic astronomical objects such as white dwarf stars and neutron stars.

Summary

Element Osmium
Atomic number 76
Atomic mass [amu] 190.23
Atomic mass [pm] 144
Density at STP [g/cm3] 22.61
Number of protons 76
Number of neutrons (typical isotopes) 187-190, 192
Number of electrons 76
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2
Oxidation states +3,4
Electron affinity [kJ/mol] 106.1
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.2
First ionization energy [eV] 8.7

Atomic Number – Protons, Electrons and Neutrons in Osmium

Proton Number - Atomic NumberOsmium is a chemical element with atomic number 76 which means there are 76 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Osmium are 187-190, 192.

Atomic Mass of Osmium

Atomic mass of Osmium is 190.23 u. 

The atomic mass is the mass of an atom. The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass refers to the mass of a single particle, and therefore is tied to a certain specific isotope of an element. The atomic mass is carried by the atomic nucleus, which occupies only about 10-12 of the total volume of the atom or less, but it contains all the positive charge and at least 99.95% of the total mass of the atom. Note that, each element may contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance.

Atomic Radius of Osmium

The atomic radius of Osmium atom is 144pm (covalent radius).

Atomic Radius of Chemical Elements

It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus. However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. Therefore, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius.

Electrons and Electron Configuration

The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Osmium is 76. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.

Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.

Electron configuration of Osmium is [Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2.

Possible oxidation states are +3,4.

Density of Osmium

Density of Osmium is 22.61g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances are at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

Atomic Masses of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic mass

Atomic Radii of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic radius

Densities of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - density

Osmium-protons-neutrons-electrons-configuration

Osmium-affinity-electronegativity-ionization

Electron Affinity – Osmium

Electron affinity of Osmium is 106.1 kJ/mol.

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as:

the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom or molecule (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion.

X + e → X + energy        Affinity = – ∆H

In other words, it can be expressed as the neutral atom’s likelihood of gaining an electron. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies.

Electronegativity of Osmium

Electronegativity of Osmium is 2.2.

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards this atom. For this purposes, a dimensionless quantity the Pauling scale, symbol χ, is the most commonly used.

The electronegativity of Osmium is: χ = 2.2

First Ionization Energy of Osmium

First Ionization Energy of Osmium is 8.7 eV.

Ionization energy, also called ionization potential, is the energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral atom.

X + energy → X+ + e

where X is any atom or molecule capable of being ionized, X+ is that atom or molecule with an electron removed (positive ion), and e is the removed electron.

A Osmium atom, for example, requires the following ionization energy to remove the outermost electron.

Os + IE → Os+ + e        IE = 8.7 eV

Electronegativity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electronegativity

Ionization Energy of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - ionization energy

Osmium-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

 

Properties of other elements

Osmium - Comparison of Atomic Properties

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Osmium

 

Tantalum – Periodic Table – Atomic Properties

Tantalum-density-atomic-number-mass-radius

Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, shiny transition metal that is highly resistant to corrosion.

Resumen

Element Tantalum
Atomic number 73
Atomic mass [amu] 180.9479
Atomic mass [pm] 170
Density at STP [g / cm3] 16.65
Number of protons 73
Number of neutrons (typical isotopes) 181
Number of electrons 73
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2
Oxidation states +5
Electron affinity [kJ/mol] 31
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.5
First ionization energy [eV] 7.89

Atomic number: protons, electrons and neutrons in Tantalum

Proton Number - Atomic Number

Tantalum is a chemical element with atomic number 73, which means that there are 73 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electric charge of the nucleus is therefore + Ze, where e (elemental charge) is equal to 1.602 x 10-19  coulombs.

The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the number of neutrons in the atom and is given the symbol N. Number of neutrons plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N + Z = A. The difference between the number of neutrons and the atomic number is known as the excess neutrons: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For stable elements, there are usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. The typical isotope mass of tantalum is 181.

Atomic mass of Tantalum

The atomic mass of tantalum is 180.9479 u.

Atomic mass is the mass of an atom. Atomic mass or relative isotopic mass refers to the mass of a single particle and is therefore bound to a certain specific isotope of an element. Atomic mass is carried by the atomic nucleus, which occupies only about 10-12  of the total volume of the atom or less, but contains all of the positive charge and at least 99.95% of the total mass of the atom. Note that each element can contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from the natural isotopes and their abundance.

Atomic radius of Tantalum

The atomic radius of the tantalum atom is 170 pm (covalent radius).Atomic Radius of Chemical Elements

It should be noted that atoms lack a well-defined outer limit. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance the electron cloud extends from the nucleus. However, this assumes that the atom exhibits a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in a vacuum or free space. Therefore, there are several non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius.

 

Electrons and electron configuration

The number of electrons in an electrically neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in the neutral tantalum atom is 73. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other negative electrons (Z – 1) in the atom.

Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons is derived from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in the electron shells of each element, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the main factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.

The electron configuration of tantalum is [Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2.

Possible oxidation states are +5.

Tantalum density

The density of tantalum is 16.65 g / cm 3 .

Typical densities of various substances are at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

Atomic Masses of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic mass

Atomic Radii of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - atomic radius

Densities of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - density

Tantalum-protons-neutrons-electrons-configuration

Tantalum-affinity-electronegativity-ionization

Electron Affinity – Tantalum

Electron affinity of Tantalum is 31 kJ/mol.

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as:

the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom or molecule (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion.

X + e → X + energy        Affinity = – ∆H

In other words, it can be expressed as the neutral atom’s likelihood of gaining an electron. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies.

Electronegativity of Tantalum

Electronegativity of Tantalum is 1.5.

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards this atom. For this purposes, a dimensionless quantity the Pauling scale, symbol χ, is the most commonly used.

The electronegativity of Tantalum is: χ = 1.5

First Ionization Energy of Tantalum

First Ionization Energy of Tantalum is 7.89 eV.

Ionization energy, also called ionization potential, is the energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral atom.

X + energy → X+ + e

where X is any atom or molecule capable of being ionized, X+ is that atom or molecule with an electron removed (positive ion), and e is the removed electron.

A Tantalum atom, for example, requires the following ionization energy to remove the outermost electron.

Ta + IE → Ta+ + e        IE = 7.89 eV

Electronegativity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electronegativity

Ionization Energy of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - ionization energy

Tantalum-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

 

Properties of other elements

Tantalum - Comparison of Atomic Properties

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Tantalum