Electrical Resistivity of Chemical Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity
1
H

Hydrogen

 

2
He

Helium

 

3
Li

Lithium

92.8 nΩ⋅m

4
Be

Beryllium

36 nΩ⋅m

5
B

Boron

1e15 nΩ⋅m

6
C

Carbon

7837 nΩ⋅m

7
N

Nitrogen

 

8
O

Oxygen

 

9
F

Fluorine

 

10
Ne

Neon

 

11
Na

Sodium

47.7 nΩ⋅m

12
Mg

Magnesium

43.9 nΩ⋅m

13
Al

Aluminium

26.5 nΩ⋅m

14
Si

Silicon

2.3e12 nΩ⋅m

15
P

Phosphorus

 

16
S

Sulfur

2e24 nΩ⋅m

17
Cl

Chlorine

1e10 nΩ⋅m

18
Ar

Argon

 

19
K

Potassium

72 nΩ⋅m

20
Ca

Calcium

33.6 nΩ⋅m

21
Sc

Scandium

562 nΩ⋅m

22
Ti

Titanium

420 nΩ⋅m

23
V

Vanadium

197 nΩ⋅m

24
Cr

Chromium

125 nΩ⋅m

25
Mn

Manganese

1440 nΩ⋅m

26
Fe

Iron

96.1 nΩ⋅m

27
Co

Cobalt

62.4 nΩ⋅m

28
Ni

Nickel

69.3 nΩ⋅m

29
Cu

Copper

16.8 nΩ⋅m

30
Zn

Zinc

59 nΩ⋅m

31
Ga

Gallium

270 nΩ⋅m

32
Ge

Germanium

1e9 nΩ⋅m

33
As

Arsenic

333 nΩ⋅m

34
Se

Selenium

 

35
Br

Bromine

8e19 nΩ⋅m

36
Kr

Krypton

 

37
Rb

Rubidium

128 nΩ⋅m

38
Sr

Strontium

132 nΩ⋅m

39
Y

Yttrium

596 nΩ⋅m

40
Zr

Zirconium

421 nΩ⋅m

41
Nb

Niobium

152 nΩ⋅m

42
Mo

Molybdenum

53.4 nΩ⋅m

43
Tc

Technetium

200 nΩ⋅m

44
Ru

Ruthenium

71 nΩ⋅m

45
Rh

Rhodium

43.3 nΩ⋅m

46
Pd

Palladium

105 nΩ⋅m

47
Ag

Silver

15.9 nΩ⋅m

48
Cd

Cadmium

72.7 nΩ⋅m

49
In

Indium

83.7 nΩ⋅m

50
Sn

Tin

115 nΩ⋅m

51
Sb

Antimony

417 nΩ⋅m

52
Te

Tellurium

 

53
I

Iodine

1e16 nΩ⋅m

54
Xe

Xenon

 

55
Cs

Caesium

205 nΩ⋅m

56
Ba

Barium

332 nΩ⋅m

57-71

 

Lanthanoids

 

72
Hf

Hafnium

331 nΩ⋅m

73
Ta

Tantalum

131 nΩ⋅m

74
W

Tungsten

52.8 nΩ⋅m

75
Re

Rhenium

193 nΩ⋅m

76
Os

Osmium

81.2 nΩ⋅m

77
Ir

Iridium

47 nΩ⋅m

78
Pt

Platinum

105 nΩ⋅m

79
Au

Gold

22.14 nΩ⋅m

80
Hg

Mercury

961 nΩ⋅m

81
Tl

Thallium

180 nΩ⋅m

82
Pb

Lead

208 nΩ⋅m

83
Bi

Bismuth

1290 nΩ⋅m

84
Po

Polonium

400 nΩ⋅m

85
At

Astatine

 

86
Rn

Radon

 

87
Fr

Francium

 

88
Ra

Radium

1000 nΩ⋅m

89-103

 

Actinoids

 

104
Rf

Rutherfordium

 

105
Db

Dubnium

 

106
Sg

Seaborgium

 

107
Bh

Bohrium

 

108
Hs

Hassium

 

109
Mt

Meitnerium

 

110
Ds

Darmstadtium

 

111
Rg

Roentgenium

 

112
Cn

Copernicium

 

113
Nh

Nihonium

 

114
Fl

Flerovium

 

115
Mc

Moscovium

 

116
Lv

Livermorium

 

117
Ts

Tennessine

 

118
Og

Oganesson

 

57
La

Lanthanum

615 nΩ⋅m

58
Ce

Cerium

828 nΩ⋅m

59
Pr

Praseodymium

700 nΩ⋅m

60
Nd

Neodymium

643 nΩ⋅m

61
Pm

Promethium

750 nΩ⋅m

62
Sm

Samarium

940 nΩ⋅m

63
Eu

Europium

900 nΩ⋅m

64
Gd

Gadolinium

1310 nΩ⋅m

65
Tb

Terbium

1150 nΩ⋅m

66
Dy

Dysprosium

926 nΩ⋅m

67
Ho

Holmium

814 nΩ⋅m

68
Er

Erbium

860 nΩ⋅m

69
Tm

Thulium

676 nΩ⋅m

70
Yb

Ytterbium

250 nΩ⋅m

71
Lu

Lutetium

582 nΩ⋅m

89
Ac

Actinium

 

90
Th

Thorium

157 nΩ⋅m

91
Pa

Protactinium

177 nΩ⋅m

92
U

Uranium

280 nΩ⋅m

93
Np

Neptunium

1220 nΩ⋅m

94
Pu

Plutonium

1460 nΩ⋅m

95
Am

Americium

690 nΩ⋅m

96
Cm

Curium

1250 nΩ⋅m

97
Bk

Berkelium

 

98
Cf

Californium

 

99
Es

Einsteinium

 

100
Fm

Fermium

 

101
Md

Mendelevium

 

102
No

Nobelium

 

103
Lr

Lawrencium

 

Electrical Resistivity of Chemical Elements

Electrical resistivity and its converse, electrical conductivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how strongly it resists or conducts the flow of electric current. A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows the flow of electric current. The symbol of resistivity is usually the Greek letter ρ (rho). The SI unit of electrical resistivity is the ohm-metre (Ω⋅m). Note that, electrical resistivity is not the same as electrical resistance. Electrical resistance is expressed in Ohms. While resistivity is a material property, resistance is the property of an object.

Conductors – Semiconductors – Resistors

Substances in which electricity can flow are called conductors. Conductors are made of high-conductivity materials such as metals, in particular copper and aluminium.

Insulators, on the other hand, are made of a wide variety of materials depending on factors such as the desired resistance.

Semiconductors are materials, inorganic or organic, which have the ability to control their conduction depending on chemical structure, temperature, illumination, and presence of dopants. The name semiconductor comes from the fact that these materials have an electrical conductivity between that of a metal, like copper, gold, etc. and an insulator, such as glass. They have an energy gap less than 4eV (about 1eV). In solid-state physics, this energy gap or band gap is an energy range between valence band and conduction band where electron states are forbidden. In contrast to conductors, electrons in a semiconductor must obtain energy (e.g. from ionizing radiation) to cross the band gap and to reach the conduction band.

To understand the difference between metals, semiconductors and electrical insulators, we have to define the following terms from solid-state physics:

  • Valence Band - Conduction Band - Band GapValence Band. In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid. In electrical insulators and semiconductors, the valence band is the highest range of electron energies in which electrons are normally present at absolute zero temperature. For example, a silicon atom has fourteen electrons. In the ground state, they are arranged in the electron configuration [Ne]3s23p2. Of these, four are valence electrons, occupying the 3s orbital and two of the 3p orbitals. The distinction between the valence and conduction bands is meaningless in metals, because conduction occurs in one or more partially filled bands that take on the properties of both the valence and conduction bands.
  • Conduction Band. In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid. In electrical insulators and semiconductors, the conduction band is the lowest range of vacant electronic states. On a graph of the electronic band structure of a material, the valence band is located below the Fermi level, while the conduction band is located above it. In semiconductors, electrons may reach the conduction band, when they are excited, for example, by ionizing radiation (i.e. they must obtain energy higher than Egap). For example, diamond is a wide-band gap semiconductor (Egap = 5.47 eV) with high potential as an electronic device material in many devices. On the other side, germanium has a small band gap energy (Egap = 0.67 eV), which requires to operate the detector at cryogenic temperatures. The distinction between the valence and conduction bands is meaningless in metals, because conduction occurs in one or more partially filled bands that take on the properties of both the valence and conduction bands.
  • Band Gap. In solid-state physics, the energy gap or the band gap is an energy range between valence band and conduction band where electron states are forbidden. In contrast to conductors, electrons in a semiconductor must obtain energy (e.g. from ionizing radiation) to cross the band gap and to reach the conduction band. Band gaps are naturally different for different materials. For example, diamond is a wide-band gap semiconductor (Egap = 5.47 eV) with high potential as an electronic device material in many devices. On the other side, germanium has a small band gap energy (Egap = 0.67 eV), which requires to operate the detector at cryogenic temperatures.
  • Fermi Level. The term “Fermi level” comes from Fermi-Dirac statistics, which describes a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of fermions (electrons) that obey the Pauli exclusion principle. Since they cannot exist in identical energy states, Fermi level is the term used to describe the top of the collection of electron energy levels at absolute zero temperature. The Fermi level is the surface of Fermi sea at absolute zero where no electrons will have enough energy to rise above the surface. In metals, the Fermi level lies in the hypothetical conduction band giving rise to free conduction electrons. In semiconductors the position of the Fermi level is within the band gap, approximately in the middle of the band gap.
  • extrinsic - doped semiconductor - p-type - acceptorElectron-hole Pair. In the semiconductor, free charge carriers are electrons and electron holes(electron-hole pairs). Electrons and holes are created by excitation of electron from valence band to the conduction band. An electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice. It is one of the two types of charge carriers that are responsible for creating electric current in semiconducting materials. Since in a normal atom or crystal lattice the negative charge of the electrons is balanced by the positive charge of the atomic nuclei, the absence of an electron leaves a net positive charge at the hole’s location. Positively charged holes can move from atom to atom in semiconducting materials as electrons leave their positions. When an electron meets with a hole, they recombine and these free carriers effectively vanish. The recombination means an electron which has been excited from the valence band to the conduction band falls back to the empty state in the valence band, known as the holes.

Properties of other elements