Boiling Point of Chemical Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - boiling point
1
H

Hydrogen

20.3 K

2
He

Helium

4.2 K

3
Li

Lithium

1603 K

4
Be

Beryllium

2742 K

5
B

Boron

4200 K

6
C

Carbon

4300 K

7
N

Nitrogen

77.4 K

8
O

Oxygen

90.2 K

9
F

Fluorine

85 K

10
Ne

Neon

27.1 K

11
Na

Sodium

1156.1 K

12
Mg

Magnesium

1363 K

13
Al

Aluminium

2743 K

14
Si

Silicon

3538 K

15
P

Phosphorus

553.7 K

16
S

Sulfur

717.8 K

17
Cl

Chlorine

239.1 K

18
Ar

Argon

87.3 K

19
K

Potassium

1032 K

20
Ca

Calcium

1757 K

21
Sc

Scandium

3109 K

22
Ti

Titanium

3560 K

23
V

Vanadium

3680 K

24
Cr

Chromium

2944 K

25
Mn

Manganese

2334 K

26
Fe

Iron

3134 K

27
Co

Cobalt

3200 K

28
Ni

Nickel

3003 K

29
Cu

Copper

2835 K

30
Zn

Zinc

1180 K

31
Ga

Gallium

2673 K

32
Ge

Germanium

3106 K

33
As

Arsenic

887 K

34
Se

Selenium

958 K

35
Br

Bromine

332 K

36
Kr

Krypton

119.9 K

37
Rb

Rubidium

961 K

38
Sr

Strontium

1650 K

39
Y

Yttrium

3203 K

40
Zr

Zirconium

4650 K

41
Nb

Niobium

5017 K

42
Mo

Molybdenum

4912 K

43
Tc

Technetium

4538 K

44
Ru

Ruthenium

4423 K

45
Rh

Rhodium

3968 K

46
Pd

Palladium

3236 K

47
Ag

Silver

2435 K

48
Cd

Cadmium

1040 K

49
In

Indium

2345 K

50
Sn

Tin

2875 K

51
Sb

Antimony

1908 K

52
Te

Tellurium

1261 K

53
I

Iodine

457.4 K

54
Xe

Xenon

165.1 K

55
Cs

Caesium

944 K

56
Ba

Barium

2118 K

57-71

 

Lanthanoids

 

72
Hf

Hafnium

4876 K

73
Ta

Tantalum

5731 K

74
W

Tungsten

6203 K

75
Re

Rhenium

5903 K

76
Os

Osmium

5285 K

77
Ir

Iridium

4403 K

78
Pt

Platinum

4098 K

79
Au

Gold

3243 K

80
Hg

Mercury

629.9 K

81
Tl

Thallium

1746 K

82
Pb

Lead

2022 K

83
Bi

Bismuth

1837 K

84
Po

Polonium

1235 K

85
At

Astatine

503 K

86
Rn

Radon

211.5 K

87
Fr

Francium

890 K

88
Ra

Radium

2010 K

89-103

 

Actinoids

 

104
Rf

Rutherfordium

5800 K

105
Db

Dubnium

 

106
Sg

Seaborgium

 

107
Bh

Bohrium

 

108
Hs

Hassium

 

109
Mt

Meitnerium

 

110
Ds

Darmstadtium

 

111
Rg

Roentgenium

 

112
Cn

Copernicium

357 K

113
Nh

Nihonium

1430 K

114
Fl

Flerovium

210 K

115
Mc

Moscovium

1400 K

116
Lv

Livermorium

1035-1135 K

117
Ts

Tennessine

883 K

118
Og

Oganesson

350 K

57
La

Lanthanum

3737 K

58
Ce

Cerium

3716 K

59
Pr

Praseodymium

3403 K

60
Nd

Neodymium

3347 K

61
Pm

Promethium

3273 K

62
Sm

Samarium

2173 K

63
Eu

Europium

1802 K

64
Gd

Gadolinium

3273 K

65
Tb

Terbium

3396 K

66
Dy

Dysprosium

2840 K

67
Ho

Holmium

2873 K

68
Er

Erbium

3141 K

69
Tm

Thulium

2223 K

70
Yb

Ytterbium

1469 K

71
Lu

Lutetium

3675 K

89
Ac

Actinium

3500 K

90
Th

Thorium

5061 K

91
Pa

Protactinium

4300 K

92
U

Uranium

4404 K

93
Np

Neptunium

4447 K

94
Pu

Plutonium

3505 K

95
Am

Americium

2880 K

96
Cm

Curium

3383 K

97
Bk

Berkelium

2900 K

98
Cf

Californium

1743 K

99
Es

Einsteinium

1269 K

100
Fm

Fermium

 

101
Md

Mendelevium

 

102
No

Nobelium

 

103
Lr

Lawrencium

 

Boiling Point of Chemical Elements

In general, boiling is a phase change of a substance from the liquid to the gas phase. The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change (boiling or vaporization) occurs. The temperature at which vaporization (boiling) starts to occur for a given pressure is also known as the saturation temperature and at this conditions a mixture of vapor and liquid can exist together. The liquid can be said to be saturated with thermal energy. Any addition of thermal energy results in a phase transition. At the boiling point the two phases of a substance, liquid and vapor, have identical free energies and therefore are equally likely to exist. Below the boiling point, the liquid is the more stable state of the two, whereas above the gaseous form is preferred. The pressure at which vaporization (boiling) starts to occur for a given temperature is called the saturation pressure. When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from vapor to liquid, it is referred to as the condensation point.

As can be seen, the boiling point of a liquid varies depending upon the surrounding environmental pressure. A liquid in a partial vacuum has a lower boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. A liquid at high pressure has a higher boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. For example, water boils at 100°C (212°F) at sea level, but at 93.4°C (200.1°F) at 1900 metres (6,233 ft) altitude. On the other hand, water boils at 350°C (662°F) at 16.5 MPa (typical pressure of PWRs).

In the periodic table of elements, the element with the lowest boiling point is helium. Both the boiling points of rhenium and tungsten exceed 5000 K at standard pressure. Since it is difficult to measure extreme temperatures precisely without bias, both have been cited in the literature as having the higher boiling point.

 

melting-and-boiling-point-chemical-elements-chart

Properties of other elements