Strength of Chemical Elements – Tensile – Yield

Periodic Table of Elements
1
H

Hydrogen

N/A

2
He

Helium

N/A

3
Li

Lithium

1.5 MPa

4
Be

Beryllium

345 MPa

5
B

Boron

N/A

6
C

Carbon

15 MPa

7
N

Nitrogen

N/A

8
O

Oxygen

N/A

9
F

Fluorine

N/A

10
Ne

Neon

N/A

11
Na

Sodium

N/A

12
Mg

Magnesium

200 MPa

13
Al

Aluminium

90 MPa (pure)

14
Si

Silicon

170 MPa

15
P

Phosphorus

N/A

16
S

Sulfur

N/A

17
Cl

Chlorine

N/A

18
Ar

Argon

N/A

19
K

Potassium

N/A

20
Ca

Calcium

110 MPa

21
Sc

Scandium

200 MPa

22
Ti

Titanium

343 MPa, 293 MPa (pure)

23
V

Vanadium

800 MPa

24
Cr

Chromium

550 MPa

25
Mn

Manganese

650 MPa

26
Fe

Iron

540 MPa

27
Co

Cobalt

800 MPa

28
Ni

Nickel

345 MPa

29
Cu

Copper

210 MPa

30
Zn

Zinc

90 MPa

31
Ga

Gallium

15 MPa

32
Ge

Germanium

135 MPa

33
As

Arsenic

N/A

34
Se

Selenium

300 MPa

35
Br

Bromine

N/A

36
Kr

Krypton

N/A

37
Rb

Rubidium

N/A

38
Sr

Strontium

N/A

39
Y

Yttrium

115 MPa

40
Zr

Zirconium

330 MPa

41
Nb

Niobium

275 MPa

42
Mo

Molybdenum

324 MPa

43
Tc

Technetium

N/A

44
Ru

Ruthenium

370 MPa

45
Rh

Rhodium

950 MPa

46
Pd

Palladium

135 MPa

47
Ag

Silver

110 MPa

48
Cd

Cadmium

75 MPa

49
In

Indium

2.5 MPa

50
Sn

Tin

220 MPa

51
Sb

Antimony

11 MPa

52
Te

Tellurium

11 MPa

53
I

Iodine

N/A

54
Xe

Xenon

N/A

55
Cs

Caesium

N/A

56
Ba

Barium

N/A

57-71

 

Lanthanoids

 

72
Hf

Hafnium

480 MPa

73
Ta

Tantalum

760 MPa

74
W

Tungsten

980 MPa

75
Re

Rhenium

1070 MPa

76
Os

Osmium

1000 MPa

77
Ir

Iridium

2000 MPa

78
Pt

Platinum

150 MPa

79
Au

Gold

220 MPa

80
Hg

Mercury

N/A

81
Tl

Thallium

8 MPa

82
Pb

Lead

17 MPa

83
Bi

Bismuth

4 MPa

84
Po

Polonium

N/A

85
At

Astatine

N/A

86
Rn

Radon

N/A

87
Fr

Francium

N/A

88
Ra

Radium

N/A

89-103

 

Actinoids

 

104
Rf

Rutherfordium

N/A

105
Db

Dubnium

N/A

106
Sg

Seaborgium

N/A

107
Bh

Bohrium

N/A

108
Hs

Hassium

N/A

109
Mt

Meitnerium

N/A

110
Ds

Darmstadtium

N/A

111
Rg

Roentgenium

N/A

112
Cn

Copernicium

N/A

113
Nh

Nihonium

N/A

114
Fl

Flerovium

N/A

115
Mc

Moscovium

N/A

116
Lv

Livermorium

N/A

117
Ts

Tennessine

N/A

118
Og

Oganesson

N/A

57
La

Lanthanum

130 MPa

58
Ce

Cerium

100 MPa

59
Pr

Praseodymium

110 MPa

60
Nd

Neodymium

155 MPa

61
Pm

Promethium

160 MPa

62
Sm

Samarium

124 MPa

63
Eu

Europium

120 MPa

64
Gd

Gadolinium

170 MPa

65
Tb

Terbium

N/A

66
Dy

Dysprosium

220 MPa

67
Ho

Holmium

260 MPa

68
Er

Erbium

260 MPa

69
Tm

Thulium

N/A

70
Yb

Ytterbium

69 MPa

71
Lu

Lutetium

N/A

89
Ac

Actinium

N/A

90
Th

Thorium

220 MPa

91
Pa

Protactinium

N/A

92
U

Uranium

390 MPa

93
Np

Neptunium

N/A

94
Pu

Plutonium

N/A

95
Am

Americium

N/A

96
Cm

Curium

N/A

97
Bk

Berkelium

N/A

98
Cf

Californium

N/A

99
Es

Einsteinium

N/A

100
Fm

Fermium

N/A

101
Md

Mendelevium

N/A

102
No

Nobelium

N/A

103
Lr

Lawrencium

N/A

Strength of Chemical Materials

Stress-strain curve - Strength of MaterialsStrength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

However, we must note that the load which will deform a small component, will be less than the load to deform a larger component of the same material. Therefore, the load (force) is not a suitable term to describe strength. Instead, we can use the force (load) per unit of area (σ = F/A), called stress, which is constant (until deformation occurs) for a given material regardless of size of the component part. In this concept, strain is also very important variable, since it defines the deformation of an object. In summary, the mechanical behavior of solids is usually defined by constitutive stress-strain relations. A deformation is called elastic deformation, if the stress is a linear function of strain. In other words, stress and strain follows Hooke’s law. Beyond the linear region, stress and strain show nonlinear behavior. This inelastic behavior is called plastic deformation.

A schematic diagram for the stress-strain curve of low carbon steel at room temperature is shown in the figure. There are several stages showing different behaviors, which suggests different mechanical properties. To clarify, materials can miss one or more stages shown in the figure, or have totally different stages. In this case we have to distinguish between stress-strain characteristics of ductile and brittle materials. The following points describe the different regions of the stress-strain curve and the importance of several specific locations.

  • Proportional limit. The proportional limit corresponds to the location of stress at the end of the linear region, so the stress-strain graph is a straight line, and the gradient will be equal to the elastic modulus of the material. For tensile and compressive stress, the slope of the portion of the curve where stress is proportional to strain is referred to as Young’s modulus and Hooke’s Law applies. Between the proportional limit and the yield point the Hooke’s Law becomes questionable between and strain increases more rapidly.
  • Yield Strength - Ultimate Tensile Strength - Table of MaterialsYield point. The yield point is the point on a stress-strain curve that indicates the limit of elastic behavior and the beginning plastic behavior. Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins. Prior to the yield point, the material will deform elastically and will return to its original shape when the applied stress is removed. Once the yield point is passed, some fraction of the deformation will be permanent and non-reversible. Some steels and other materials exhibit a behaviour termed a yield point phenomenon. Yield strengths vary from 35 MPa for a low-strength aluminum to greater than 1400 MPa for very high-strength steels.
  • Ultimate tensile strength. The ultimate tensile strength is the maximum on the engineering stress-strain curve. This corresponds to the maximum stress that can be sustained by a structure in tension. Ultimate tensile strength is often shortened to “tensile strength” or even to “the ultimate.”  If this stress is applied and maintained, fracture will result. Often, this value is significantly more than the yield stress (as much as 50 to 60 percent more than the yield for some types of metals). When a ductile material reaches its ultimate strength, it experiences necking where the cross-sectional area reduces locally. The stress-strain curve contains no higher stress than the ultimate strength. Even though deformations can continue to increase, the stress usually decreases after the ultimate strength has been achieved. It is an intensive property; therefore its value does not depend on the size of the test specimen. However, it is dependent on other factors, such as the preparation of the specimen, the presence or otherwise of surface defects, and the temperature of the test environment and material. Ultimate tensile strengths vary from 50 MPa for an aluminum to as high as 3000 MPa for very high-strength steels.
  • Fracture point: The fracture point is the point of strain where the material physically separates. At this point, the strain reaches its maximum value and the material actually fractures, even though the corresponding stress may be less than the ultimate strength at this point. Ductile materials have a fracture strength lower than the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), whereas in brittle materials the fracture strength is equivalent to the UTS. If a ductile material reaches its ultimate tensile strength in a load-controlled situation, it will continue to deform, with no additional load application, until it ruptures. However, if the loading is displacement-controlled, the deformation of the material may relieve the load, preventing rupture.

In many situations, the yield strength is used to identify the allowable stress to which a material can be subjected. For components that have to withstand high pressures, such as those used in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), this criterion is not adequate. To cover these situations, the maximum shear stress theory of failure has been incorporated into the ASME (The American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Rules for Construction of Nuclear Pressure Vessels. This theory states that failure of a piping component occurs when the maximum shear stress exceeds the shear stress at the yield point in a tensile test.

Properties of other elements