Titanium and Copper – Comparison – Properties

This article contains comparison of key thermal and atomic properties of titanium and copper, two comparable chemical elements from the periodic table. It also contains basic descriptions and applications of both elements. Titanium vs Copper.

titanium and copper - comparison

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Titanium and Copper – About Elements

Titanium

Titanium is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. Titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine. Titanium can be used in surface condensers. These condensers use tubes that are usually made of stainless steel, copper alloys, or titanium depending on several selection criteria (such as thermal conductivity or corrosion resistance). Titanium condenser tubes are usually the best technical choice, however titanium is very expensive material and the use of titanium condenser tubes is associated with very high initial costs.

Copper

Copper is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement.

Titanium in Periodic Table

Copper in Periodic Table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Titanium and Copper – Applications

Titanium

The two most useful properties of the metal are corrosion resistance and strength-to-density ratio, the highest of any metallic element. The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys at normal temperatures is unusually high. These properties determine application of titanium and its alloys. The earliest production application of titanium was in 1952, for the nacelles and firewalls of the Douglas DC-7 airliner. High specific strength, good fatigue resistance and creep life, and good fracture toughness are characteristics that make titanium a preferred metal for aerospace applications. Aerospace applications, including use in both structural (airframe) components and jet engines, still account for the largest share of titanium alloy use. On the supersonic aircraft SR-71, titanium was used for 85% of the structure. Due to very high inertness, titanium has many biomedical applications, which is based on its inertness in the human body, that is, resistance to corrosion by body fluids.

Copper

Historically, alloying copper with another metal, for example tin to make bronze, was first practiced about 4000 years after the discovery of copper smelting, and about 2000 years after “natural bronze” had come into general use. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals. The major applications of copper are electrical wire (60%), roofing and plumbing (20%), and industrial machinery (15%). Copper is used mostly as a pure metal, but when greater hardness is required, it is put into such alloys as brass and bronze (5% of total use). Copper and copper-based alloys including brasses (Cu-Zn) and bronzes (Cu-Sn) are widely used in different industrial and societal applications. Some of the common uses for brass alloys include costume jewelry, locks, hinges, gears, bearings, ammunition casings, automotive radiators, musical instruments, electronic packaging, and coins. Bronze, or bronze-like alloys and mixtures, were used for coins over a longer period. is still widely used today for springs, bearings, bushings, automobile transmission pilot bearings, and similar fittings, and is particularly common in the bearings of small electric motors. Brass and bronze are common engineering materials in modern architecture and primarily used for roofing and facade cladding due to their visual appearance.

Titanium and Copper – Comparison in Table

Element Titanium Copper
Density 4.507 g/cm3 8.92 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 434 MPa, 293 MPa (pure) 210 MPa
Yield Strength 380 MPa 33 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 116 GPa 120 GPa
Mohs Scale 6 3
Brinell Hardness 700 – 2700 MPa 250 MPa
Vickers Hardness 800 – 3400 MPa 350 MPa
Melting Point 1668 °C 1084.62 °C
Boiling Point 3287 °C 2562 °C
Thermal Conductivity 21.9 W/mK 401 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 8.6 µm/mK 16.5 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.52 J/g K 0.38 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 15.45 kJ/mol 13.05 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 421 kJ/mol 300.3 kJ/mol