Dysprosium is a rare earth element with a metallic silver luster. Dysprosium is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility in data storage applications.
Protons and Neutrons in Dysprosium
Dysprosium is a chemical element with atomic number 66 which means there are 66 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.
The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.
For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Dysprosium are 156-164.
Main Isotopes of Dysprosium
Dysprosium occurs in 7 natural isotopes: 156Dy, 158Dy, 160Dy, 161Dy, 162Dy, 163Dy and 164Dy. 164Dy is the most common isotope, having a natural abundance of approximately 28%.
Dysprosium-156 is composed of 66 protons, 90 neutrons, and 66 electrons.
Dysprosium-158 is composed of 66 protons, 92 neutrons, and 66 electrons.
Dysprosium-160 is composed of 66 protons, 94 neutrons, and 66 electrons.
Dysprosium-161 is composed of 66 protons, 95 neutrons, and 66 electrons.
Dysprosium-162 is composed of 66 protons, 96 neutrons, and 66 electrons.
Dysprosium-163 is composed of 66 protons, 97 neutrons, and 66 electrons.
Dysprosium-164 is composed of 66 protons, 98 neutrons, and 66 electrons.
Electrons and Electron Configuration
The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Dysprosium is 66. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.
Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.
Electron configuration of Dysprosium is [Xe] 4f10 6s2.
Possible oxidation states are +3.
Most Common Compound of Dysprosium
Dysprosium oxide (Dy2O3) is a sesquioxide compound of the rare earth metal dysprosium. It is a pastel yellowish-greenish, slightly hygroscopic powder having specialized uses in ceramics, glass, phosphors, dysprosium metal halide lamps and lasers.
|Number of protons||66|
|Number of neutrons (typical isotopes)||156-164|
|Number of electrons||66|
|Electron configuration||[Xe] 4f10 6s2|
Properties of other elements