Neon is a colorless, odorless, inert monatomic gas under standard conditions, with about two-thirds the density of air.
Liquid neon is an important cryogenic refrigerant. It has over 40 times more refrigerating capacity per unit volume than liquid helium, and more than 3 times that of liquid hydrogen.
It is commercially extracted by the fractional distillation of liquid air. Since air is the only source, it is considerably more expensive than helium.
Protons and Neutrons in Neon
Neon is a chemical element with atomic number 10 which means there are 10 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.
The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.
For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Neon are 20; 21; 22.
Main Isotopes of Neon
Neon is the second lightest inert gas. Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%).
Neon-20 is composed of 10 protons, 10 neutrons, and 10 electrons.
Neon-21 is composed of 10 protons, 11 neutrons, and 10 electrons.
Neon-22 is composed of 10 protons, 12 neutrons, and 10 electrons.
Electrons and Electron Configuration
The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Neon is 10. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.
Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.
Electron configuration of Neon is [He] 2s2 2p6.
Possible oxidation states are 0.
The element is incredibly non-reactive because of its electron configuration. Neon is the first p-block noble gas, and the first element with a true octet of electrons. It is inert: as is the case with its lighter analogue, helium, no strongly bound neutral molecules containing neon have been identified.
|Number of protons||10|
|Number of neutrons (typical isotopes)||20; 21; 22|
|Number of electrons||10|
|Electron configuration||[He] 2s2 2p6|
Properties of other elements