Ruthenium is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most other chemicals.
Protons and Neutrons in Ruthenium
Ruthenium is a chemical element with atomic number 44 which means there are 44 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.
The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.
For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Ruthenium are 98-102.
Main Isotopes of Ruthenium
Ruthenium occurs in 7 natural isotopes: 96Ru, 98Ru, 99Ru, 100Ru. 101Ru, 102Ru and 104Ru. 102Ru is the most common isotope, having a natural abundance of approximately 31%.
Ruthenium-96 is composed of 44 protons, 52 neutrons, and 44 electrons.
Ruthenium-98 is composed of 44 protons, 54 neutrons, and 44 electrons.
Ruthenium-99 is composed of 44 protons, 55 neutrons, and 44 electrons.
Ruthenium-100 is composed of 44 protons, 56 neutrons, and 44 electrons.
Ruthenium-101 is composed of 44 protons, 57 neutrons, and 44 electrons.
Ruthenium-102 is composed of 44 protons, 58 neutrons, and 44 electrons.
Ruthenium-104 is composed of 44 protons, 60 neutrons, and 44 electrons.
Electrons and Electron Configuration
The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Ruthenium is 44. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.
Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.
Electron configuration of Ruthenium is [Kr] 4d7 5s1.
Possible oxidation states are +3.
Most Common Compounds of Ruthenium
Ruthenium compounds can be used in solar cells, which turn light energy into electrical energy. The metal also serves as a hardener for platinum and palladium. The oxidation states of ruthenium range from 0 to +8, and −2. The properties of ruthenium and osmium compounds are often similar. The +2, +3, and +4 states are the most common.
|Number of protons||44|
|Number of neutrons (typical isotopes)||98-102|
|Number of electrons||44|
|Electron configuration||[Kr] 4d7 5s1|
Properties of other elements