Tin is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains tin dioxide. The first alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of tin and copper, from as early as 3000 BC.
Protons and Neutrons in Tin
Tin is a chemical element with atomic number 50 which means there are 50 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.
The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.
For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Tin are 112-124.
Main Isotopes of Tin
Tin occurs in 8 natural isotopes: 116Sn, 117Sn, 118Sn, 119Sn, 120Sn, 122Sn, 124Sn and 126Sn. 126Sn is very slightly radioactive, decaying by beta decay with a half-life of 2.3×105 years, but it occurs only in trace. 120Sn is the most common isotope, having a natural abundance of approximately 32%.
Tin-116 is composed of 50 protons, 66 neutrons, and 50 electrons.
Tin-117 is composed of 50 protons, 67 neutrons, and 50 electrons.
Tin-118 is composed of 50 protons, 68 neutrons, and 50 electrons.
Tin-119 is composed of 50 protons, 69 neutrons, and 50 electrons.
Tin-120 is composed of 50 protons, 70 neutrons, and 50 electrons.
Tin-122 is composed of 50 protons, 72 neutrons, and 50 electrons.
Tin-124 is composed of 50 protons, 74 neutrons, and 50 electrons.
Tin-126 is composed of 50 protons, 76 neutrons, and 50 electrons.
Electrons and Electron Configuration
The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Tin is 50. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.
Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.
Electron configuration of Tin is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2.
Possible oxidation states are +2,4.
Most Common Application of Tin
The bronzes are a family of copper-based alloys traditionally alloyed with tin, but can refer to alloys of copper and other elements (e.g. aluminum, silicon, and nickel). Bronzes are somewhat stronger than the brasses, yet they still have a high degree of corrosion resistance.
|Number of protons||50|
|Number of neutrons (typical isotopes)||112-124|
|Number of electrons||50|
|Electron configuration||[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2|
Properties of other elements