Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. Almost 90% of the manganese produced annually is used in the production of steel. Manganese can be formed into many useful compounds. For example, manganese oxide, which can be used in fertilizers and ceramics. Manganese is most commonly produced by the reduction of the oxide with sodium, magnesium or aluminium.
Protons and Neutrons in Manganese
Manganese is a chemical element with atomic number 25 which means there are 25 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.
The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.
For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Manganese are 55.
Main Isotopes of Manganese
Naturally occurring manganese is composed of one stable isotope, 55Mn. Several radioisotopes have been isolated and described, ranging in atomic weight from 44u (44Mn) to 69 u (69Mn).
Manganese-55 is composed of 25 protons, 30 neutrons, and 25 electrons.
Because of its relatively short half-life, 53Mn occurs only in tiny amounts due to the action of cosmic rays on iron in rocks. Manganese isotopic contents are typically combined with chromium isotopic contents and have found application in isotope geology and radiometric dating.
Electrons and Electron Configuration
The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Manganese is 25. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.
Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.
Electron configuration of Manganese is [Ar] 3d5 4s2.
Possible oxidation states are +2,3,4,7.
The most common oxidation states of manganese are +2, +3, +4, +6, and +7, though all oxidation states from −3 to +7 have been observed. Mn2+ often competes with Mg2+ in biological systems.
The most stable oxidation state for manganese is +2, which has a pale pink color, and many manganese(II) compounds are known, such as manganese(II) sulfate (MnSO4) and manganese(II) chloride (MnCl2).
Most Common Compound of Manganese
Potassium permanganate is widely used in chemical industry and laboratories as a strong oxidizing agent, and also as a medication for dermatitis, for cleaning wounds, and general disinfection.
|Number of protons
|Number of neutrons (typical isotopes)
|Number of electrons
|[Ar] 3d5 4s2