Francium is an alkali metal, that has one valence electron. Francium is the second-least electronegative element, behind only caesium, and is the second rarest naturally occurring element (after astatine). Francium is a highly radioactive metal that decays into astatine, radium, and radon.
Protons and Neutrons in Francium
Francium is a chemical element with atomic number 87 which means there are 87 protons in its nucleus. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.
The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.
For stable elements, there is usually a variety of stable isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, but differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Francium are 223.
Main Isotopes of Francium
Francium occurs in 2 natural isotopes: 221Fr and 223Fr. Both isotopes are very slightly radioactive occur only in traces.
Francium-221 is composed of 87 protons, 134 neutrons, and 87 electrons.
Francium-223 is composed of 87 protons, 136 neutrons, and 87 electrons.
Naturally Occuring Isotopes
Typical Unstable Isotopes
|212Fr||20.0 min||beta decay or alpha decay||212Rn or 208At|
|221Fr||4.8 min||alpha decay||217At|
|222Fr||14.2 min||beta decay||222Ra|
|223Fr||22.0 min||beta plus decay or alpha decay||223Ra or 219At|
Electrons and Electron Configuration
The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Francium is 87. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom.
Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.
Electron configuration of Francium is [Rn] 7s1.
Possible oxidation states are +1.
|Number of protons||87|
|Number of neutrons (typical isotopes)||223|
|Number of electrons||87|
|Electron configuration||[Rn] 7s1|
Properties of other elements