Holmium – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Holmium-properties-price-application-production

About Holmium

Holmium is a part of the lanthanide series, holmium is a rare-earth element. Holmium is a relatively soft and malleable silvery-white metal.

Summary

Element Holmium
Atomic number 67
Element category Rare Earth Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Density 8.795 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 260 MPa
Yield Strength 220 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 64.8 GPa
Mohs Scale N/A
Brinell Hardness 750 MPa
Vickers Hardness 490 MPa
Melting Point 1474 °C
Boiling Point 2600 °C
Thermal Conductivity 16 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 11.2 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.16 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 12.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 241 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter] 814
Magnetic Susceptibility N/A

Applications of Holmium

Holmium has the highest magnetic strength of any element, and therefore is used to create the strongest artificially generated magnetic fields. Holmium can absorb neutrons, so it is used in nuclear reactors to keep a chain reaction under control. Its alloys are used in some magnets.

Holmium-applications

Production and Price of Holmium

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Holmium were at around 7400 $/kg.

Pure holmium can be obtained through the reduction of holmium fluoride with calcium metal. It does occur combined with other elements in gadolinite (the black part of the specimen illustrated to the right), monazite and other rare-earth minerals. No holmium-dominant mineral has yet been found. The main mining areas are China, United States, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka, and Australia with reserves of holmium estimated as 400,000 tonnes.

Holmium-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Holmium

Holmium-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Holmium

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Holmium

Ultimate tensile strength of Holmium is 260 MPa.

Yield Strength of Holmium

Yield strength of Holmium is 220 MPa.

Modulus of Elasticity of Holmium

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Holmium is 220 MPa.

Hardness of Holmium

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Holmium is approximately 750 MPa.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Holmium is approximately 490 MPa.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Holmium is has a hardness of approximately N/A.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Holmium – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Holmium is hexagonal close-packed structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Holmium
Crystal Structure of Holmium is: hexagonal close-packed

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Holmium

Holmium-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Holmium – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Holmium is 1474°C.

Boiling point of Holmium is 2600°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Holmium – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Holmium is 16 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Holmium

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Holmium is 11.2 µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Holmium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Holmium is 0.16 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Holmium is 12.2 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Holmium is 241 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Holmium – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Holmium-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Holmium

Electrical resistivity of Holmium is 814 nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Holmium conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Holmium

Magnetic susceptibility of Holmium is N/A.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Holmium in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Holmium - Comparison of Properties and Prices

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Holmium