Tantalum – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Tantalum-properties-price-application-production

About Tantalum

Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant.

Summary

Element Tantalum
Atomic number 73
Element category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Density 16.65 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 760 MPa
Yield Strength 705 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 186 GPa
Mohs Scale 6.5
Brinell Hardness 800 MPa
Vickers Hardness 870 MPa
Melting Point 2996 °C
Boiling Point 5425 °C
Thermal Conductivity 57 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 6.3 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.14 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 31.6 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 743 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter] 131
Magnetic Susceptibility +154e-6 cm^3/mol

Applications of Tantalum

Tantalum consumption is dominated by capacitors for electronic equipment. Capacitors are electrical components that store energy electrostatically in an electric field, and are used in a wide variety of electric and electronic products. Major end uses for tantalum capacitors include portable telephones, pagers, personal computers, and automotive electronics. Alloyed with other metals, tantalum is also used in making carbide tools for metalworking equipment and in the production of superalloys for jet engine components. Compounds of tantalum such as tantalum pentoxide is used to make capacitors and glass with a high index of refraction for use in camera lenses.

Tantalum-applications

Production and Price of Tantalum

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Tantalum were at around 1200 $/kg.

Tantalum, always together with the chemically similar niobium, occurs in the mineral groups tantalite, columbite and coltan (a mix of columbite and tantalite, though not recognised as a separate mineral species). Several steps are involved in the extraction of tantalum from tantalite. First, the mineral is crushed and concentrated by gravity separation. Tantalum is considered a technology-critical element.

Tantalum-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Tantalum

Tantalum-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Tantalum

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Tantalum

Ultimate tensile strength of Tantalum is 760 MPa.

Yield Strength of Tantalum

Yield strength of Tantalum is 705 MPa.

Modulus of Elasticity of Tantalum

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Tantalum is 705 MPa.

Hardness of Tantalum

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Tantalum is approximately 800 MPa.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Tantalum is approximately 870 MPa.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Tantalum is has a hardness of approximately 6.5.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Tantalum – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Tantalum is body-centered cubic structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Tantalum
Crystal Structure of Tantalum is: body-centered cubic

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Tantalum

Tantalum-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Tantalum – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Tantalum is 2996°C.

Boiling point of Tantalum is 5425°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Tantalum – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Tantalum is 57 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Tantalum

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Tantalum is 6.3 µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Tantalum – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Tantalum is 0.14 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Tantalum is 31.6 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Tantalum is 743 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Tantalum – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Tantalum-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Tantalum

Electrical resistivity of Tantalum is 131 nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Tantalum conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Tantalum

Magnetic susceptibility of Tantalum is +154e-6 cm^3/mol.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Tantalum in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Tantalum - Comparison of Properties and Prices

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Tantalum