Hafnium – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Hafnium-properties-price-application-production

About Hafnium

Hafnium is a lustrous, silvery gray, tetravalent transition metal, hafnium chemically resembles zirconium and is found in many zirconium minerals. Hafnium’s large neutron capture cross-section makes it a good material for neutron absorption in control rods in nuclear power plants, but at the same time requires that it be removed from the neutron-transparent corrosion-resistant zirconium alloys used in nuclear reactors.

Summary

Element Hafnium
Atomic number 72
Element category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Density 13.31 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 480 MPa
Yield Strength 125 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 78 GPa
Mohs Scale 5.5
Brinell Hardness 1700 MPa
Vickers Hardness 1700 MPa
Melting Point 2227 °C
Boiling Point 4600 °C
Thermal Conductivity 23 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 5.9 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.14 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 24.06 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 575 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter] 331
Magnetic Susceptibility +75e-6 cm^3/mol

Applications of Hafnium

Hafnium has good neutron-absorbing properties, and hence it is used in control rods in nuclear reactors, but at the same time requires that it be removed from the neutron-transparent corrosion-resistant zirconium alloys used in nuclear reactors. While hafnium nitride is the most refractory of all the metal nitrides, hafnium carbide is the most refractory of all the binary materials. With a melting point of about 3900 °C it is one of the most refractory binary compounds known. Hafnium has been successfully alloyed with several metals including iron, titanium and niobium.

Hafnium-applications

Production and Price of Hafnium

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Hafnium were at around 1200 $/kg.

The heavy mineral sands ore deposits of the titanium ores ilmenite and rutile yield most of the mined zirconium, and therefore also most of the hafnium. Zirconium is a good nuclear fuel-rod cladding metal, with the desirable properties of a very low neutron capture cross-section and good chemical stability at high temperatures. However, because of hafnium’s neutron-absorbing properties, hafnium impurities in zirconium would cause it to be far less useful for nuclear-reactor applications. Thus, a nearly complete separation of zirconium and hafnium is necessary for their use in nuclear power. The production of hafnium-free zirconium is the main source for hafnium.

Hafnium-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Hafnium

Hafnium-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Hafnium

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Hafnium

Ultimate tensile strength of Hafnium is 480 MPa.

Yield Strength of Hafnium

Yield strength of Hafnium is 125 MPa.

Modulus of Elasticity of Hafnium

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Hafnium is 125 MPa.

Hardness of Hafnium

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Hafnium is approximately 1700 MPa.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Hafnium is approximately 1700 MPa.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Hafnium is has a hardness of approximately 5.5.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Hafnium – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Hafnium is hexagonal close-packed structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Hafnium
Crystal Structure of Hafnium is: hexagonal close-packed

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Hafnium

Hafnium-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Hafnium – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Hafnium is 2227°C.

Boiling point of Hafnium is 4600°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Hafnium – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Hafnium is 23 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Hafnium

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Hafnium is 5.9 µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Hafnium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Hafnium is 0.14 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Hafnium is 24.06 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Hafnium is 575 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Hafnium – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Hafnium-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Hafnium

Electrical resistivity of Hafnium is 331 nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Hafnium conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Hafnium

Magnetic susceptibility of Hafnium is +75e-6 cm^3/mol.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Hafnium in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Hafnium - Comparison of Properties and Prices

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Hafnium