Oxygen – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Oxygen-properties-price-application-production

About Oxygen

Oxygen is a colourless, odourless reactive gas, the chemical element of atomic number 8 and the life-supporting component of the air. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium.

Summary

Element Oxygen
Atomic number 8
Element category Non Metal
Phase at STP Gas
Density 0.00143 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength N/A
Yield Strength N/A
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity N/A
Mohs Scale N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness N/A
Melting Point -218.4 °C
Boiling Point -183 °C
Thermal Conductivity 0.02674 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient — µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.92 J/g K
Heat of Fusion (O2) 0.444 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization (O2) 6.82 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter]
Magnetic Susceptibility +3.4e-3 cm^3/mol

Applications of Oxygen

Common uses of oxygen include production of steel, plastics and textiles, brazing, welding and cutting of steels and other metals, rocket propellant, oxygen therapy, and life support systems in aircraft, submarines, spaceflight and diving. Smelting of iron ore into steel consumes 55% of commercially produced oxygen. In this process, oxygen is injected through a high-pressure lance into molten iron, which removes sulfur impurities and excess carbon as the respective oxides, sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide. Uptake of oxygen from the air is the essential purpose of respiration, so oxygen supplementation is used in medicine. Treatment not only increases oxygen levels in the patient’s blood, but has the secondary effect of decreasing resistance to blood flow in many types of diseased lungs, easing work load on the heart.

Oxygen-applications

Production and Price of Oxygen

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Oxygen were at around 3 $/kg.

One hundred million tonnes of oxygen are extracted from air for industrial uses annually by two primary methods. The most common method is fractional distillation of liquefied air, with nitrogen distilling as a vapor while oxygen is left as a liquid. The other primary method of producing oxygen is passing a stream of clean, dry air through one bed of a pair of identical zeolite molecular sieves, which absorbs the nitrogen and delivers a gas stream that is 90% to 93% oxygen.

Oxygen-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Oxygen

Oxygen-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Oxygen

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Oxygen

Ultimate tensile strength of Oxygen is N/A.

Yield Strength of Oxygen

Yield strength of Oxygen is N/A.

Modulus of Elasticity of Oxygen

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Oxygen is N/A.

Hardness of Oxygen

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Oxygen is approximately N/A.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Oxygen is approximately N/A.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Oxygen is has a hardness of approximately N/A.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Oxygen – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Oxygen is cubic structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Oxygen
Crystal Structure of Oxygen is: cubic

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Oxygen

Oxygen-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Oxygen – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Oxygen is -218.4°C.

Boiling point of Oxygen is -183°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Oxygen – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Oxygen is 0.02674 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Oxygen

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Oxygen is — µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Oxygen – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Oxygen is 0.92 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Oxygen is (O2) 0.444 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Oxygen is (O2) 6.82 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Oxygen – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Oxygen-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Oxygen

Electrical resistivity of Oxygen is — nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Oxygen conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Oxygen

Magnetic susceptibility of Oxygen is +3.4e-3 cm^3/mol.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Oxygen in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Oxygen - Comparison of Properties and Prices

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Oxygen