Uranium – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Uranium-properties-price-application-production

About Uranium

Uranium is a silvery-white metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. Uranium is weakly radioactive because all isotopes of uranium are unstable, with half-lives varying between 159,200 years and 4.5 billion years. Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements. Its density is about 70% higher than that of lead, and slightly lower than that of gold or tungsten. Uranium is commonly found at low levels (a few ppm – parts per million) in all rocks, soil, water, plants, and animals (including humans). Uranium occurs also in seawater, and can be recovered from the ocean water. Significant concentrations of uranium occur in some substances such as uraninite (the most common uranium ore), phosphate rock deposits, and other minerals.

Summary

Element Uranium
Atomic number 92
Element category Rare Earth Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Density 19.05 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 390 MPa
Yield Strength 190 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 208 GPa
Mohs Scale 6
Brinell Hardness 2400 MPa
Vickers Hardness 1960 MPa
Melting Point 1132 °C
Boiling Point 4131 °C
Thermal Conductivity 27 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 13.9 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.12 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 8.52 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 417 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter] 280
Magnetic Susceptibility N/A

Applications of Uranium

The main use of uranium in the civilian sector is to fuel nuclear power plants. One kilogram of uranium-235 can theoretically produce about 20 terajoules of energy, assuming complete fission; as much energy as 1.5 million kilograms (1,500 tonnes) of coal. Typical reactor may contain about 100 tonnes of enriched uranium (i.e. about 113 tonnes of uranium dioxide). This fuel is loaded within, for example, 157 fuel assemblies composed of over 45,000 fuel rods. A common fuel assembly contain energy for approximately 4 years of operation at full power. The removed fuel (spent nuclear fuel) still contains about 96% of reusable material (it must be removed due to decreasing kinf of an assembly). Before (and, occasionally, after) the discovery of radioactivity, uranium was primarily used in small amounts for yellow glass and pottery glazes, such as uranium glass. Uranium is also used by the military to power nuclear submarines and in nuclear weapons. Due to its high density, this material is found in inertial guidance systems and in gyroscopic compasses.[10] Depleted uranium is preferred over similarly dense metals due to its ability to be easily machined and cast as well as its relatively low cost. The main risk of exposure to depleted uranium is chemical poisoning by uranium oxide rather than radioactivity (uranium being only a weak alpha emitter). Depleted uranium is uranium that has much less uranium-235 than natural uranium. It is considerably less radioactive than natural uranium. It is a dense metal that can be used as ballast for ships and counterweights for aircraft. It is also used in ammunition and armour. Depleted uranium can be also used to shield radiation. Depleted uranium is much more effective due to its higher Z. Depleted uranium is used for shielding in portable gamma ray sources. Uranium is used in high-speed steels as an alloying agent to improve strength and toughness. Uranium trioxide (also called uranic oxide) with formula UO3, is an orange-yellow powder and is used as a pigment for ceramics. In glasses it produces a beautiful greenish-yellow “uranium glass”.

Uranium-applications

Production and Price of Uranium

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Uranium were at around N/A $/kg.

Uranium is commonly found at low levels (a few ppm – parts per million) in all rocks, soil, water, plants, and animals (including humans). Uranium occurs also in seawater, and can be recovered from the ocean water. Significant concentrations of uranium occur in some substances such as uraninite (the most common uranium ore), phosphate rock deposits, and other minerals. Uranium is often found with copper, phosphates, and other minerals; thus, it is often a co-product of other mining operations. The worldwide production of uranium in 2015 amounted to 60496 tonnes. Kazakhstan, Canada, and Australia are the top three producers and together account for 70% of world uranium production. Uranium is commonly found at low levels (a few ppm – parts per million) in all rocks, soil, water, plants, and animals (including humans). Uranium occurs also in seawater, and can be recovered from the ocean water. But only a few of the uranium ores known contain sufficient uranium (greater than 0.1%) to extract commercially. Significant concentrations of uranium occur in some substances such as uraninite (the most common uranium ore), phosphate rock deposits, and other minerals.

Uranium-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Uranium

Uranium-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Uranium

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Uranium

Ultimate tensile strength of Uranium is 390 MPa.

Yield Strength of Uranium

Yield strength of Uranium is 190 MPa.

Modulus of Elasticity of Uranium

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Uranium is 190 MPa.

Hardness of Uranium

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Uranium is approximately 2400 MPa.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Uranium is approximately 1960 MPa.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Uranium is has a hardness of approximately 6.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Uranium – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Uranium is orthorhombic structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Uranium
Crystal Structure of Uranium is: orthorhombic

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Uranium

Uranium-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Uranium – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Uranium is 1132°C.

Boiling point of Uranium is 4131°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Uranium – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Uranium is 27 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Uranium

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Uranium is 13.9 µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Uranium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Uranium is 0.12 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Uranium is 8.52 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Uranium is 417 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Uranium – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Uranium-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Uranium

Electrical resistivity of Uranium is 280 nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Uranium conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Uranium

Magnetic susceptibility of Uranium is N/A.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Uranium in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Uranium - Comparison of Properties and Prices

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Uranium

 

Thorium – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Thorium-properties-price-application-production

About Thorium

Thorium metal is silvery and tarnishes black when exposed to air, forming the dioxide. Thorium is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting point. Thorium is a naturally-occurring element and it is estimated to be about three times more abundant than uranium. Thorium is commonly found in monazite sands (rare earth metals containing phosphate mineral).

Summary

Element Thorium
Atomic number 90
Element category Rare Earth Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Density 11.724 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 220 MPa
Yield Strength 144 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 79 GPa
Mohs Scale 3
Brinell Hardness 400 MPa
Vickers Hardness 350 MPa
Melting Point 1750 °C
Boiling Point 4790 °C
Thermal Conductivity 54 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 11 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.12 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 13.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 514.4 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter] 157
Magnetic Susceptibility +132e-6 cm^3/mol

Applications of Thorium

Most thorium applications use its dioxide (sometimes called “thoria” in the industry), rather than the metal. This compound has a melting point of 3300 °C (6000 °F), the highest of all known oxides; only a few substances have higher melting points.[46] This helps the compound remain solid in a flame, and it considerably increases the brightness of the flame; this is the main reason thorium is used in gas lamp mantles. All substances emit energy (glow) at high temperatures, but the light emitted by thorium is nearly all in the visible spectrum, hence the brightness of thorium mantles. Thorium is an important alloying agent in magnesium, as it imparts greater strength and creep resistance at high temperatures. Thorium oxide is used as an industrial catalyst. Other uses for thorium include heat-resistant ceramics, aircraft engines, and in light bulbs. Thorium can be used as a source of nuclear power. It is about three times as abundant as uranium and about as abundant as lead, and there is probably more energy available from thorium than from both uranium and fossil fuels. 232Th is a fertile isotope. 232Th is not capable of undergoing fission reaction after absorbing thermal neutron, on the other hand 232Th can be fissioned by fast neutron with energy higher than >1MeV. India and China are in the process of developing nuclear power plants with thorium reactors, but this is still a very new technology. Thorium dioxide was formerly added to glass during manufacture to increase the refractive index, producing thoriated glass for use in high-quality camera lenses.

Thorium-applications

Production and Price of Thorium

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Thorium were at around 30 $/kg.

Thorium is a naturally-occurring element and it is estimated to be about three times more abundant than uranium. Thorium is commonly found in monazite sands (rare earth metals containing phosphate mineral). The current reliance on monazite for production is due to thorium being largely produced as a by-product; other sources such as thorite contain more thorium and could easily be used for production if demand rose.

Thorium-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Thorium

Thorium-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Thorium

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Thorium

Ultimate tensile strength of Thorium is 220 MPa.

Yield Strength of Thorium

Yield strength of Thorium is 144 MPa.

Modulus of Elasticity of Thorium

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Thorium is 144 MPa.

Hardness of Thorium

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Thorium is approximately 400 MPa.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Thorium is approximately 350 MPa.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Thorium is has a hardness of approximately 3.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Thorium – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Thorium is face-centered cubic structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Thorium
Crystal Structure of Thorium is: face-centered cubic

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Thorium

Thorium-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Thorium – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Thorium is 1750°C.

Boiling point of Thorium is 4790°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Thorium – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Thorium is 54 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Thorium

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Thorium is 11 µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Thorium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Thorium is 0.12 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Thorium is 13.8 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Thorium is 514.4 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Thorium – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Thorium-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Thorium

Electrical resistivity of Thorium is 157 nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Thorium conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Thorium

Magnetic susceptibility of Thorium is +132e-6 cm^3/mol.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Thorium in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Thorium - Comparison of Properties and Prices

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Thorium

 

Bismuth – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Bismuth-properties-price-application-production

About Bismuth

Bismuth is a brittle metal with a silvery white color when freshly produced, but surface oxidation can give it a pink tinge. Bismuth is a pentavalent post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens, chemically resembles its lighter homologs arsenic and antimony.

Summary

Element Bismuth
Atomic number 83
Element category Poor Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Density 9.78 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 4 MPa
Yield Strength 2 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 32 GPa
Mohs Scale 2.5
Brinell Hardness 70 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Melting Point 271 °C
Boiling Point 1560 °C
Thermal Conductivity 8 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 13.4 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.12 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 11.3 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 104.8 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter] 1290
Magnetic Susceptibility −280e-6 cm^3/mol

Applications of Bismuth

Bismuth metal is brittle and so it is usually mixed with other metals to make it useful. Its alloys with tin or cadmium have low melting points and are used in fire detectors and extinguishers, electric fuses and solders. Bismuth oxide is used as a yellow pigment for cosmetics and paints. Bismuth alloys are used in soldering, thermocouple materials and magnetic memory devices. Compounds of bismuth are used in lubricating greases, thermoelectric materials, infrared spectrometers. Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) is sometimes used in cosmetics, as a pigment in paint for eye shadows, hair sprays and nail polishes.

Bismuth-applications

Production and Price of Bismuth

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Bismuth were at around 110 $/kg.

n the United States, for example, 733 tonnes of bismuth were consumed in 2016, of which 70% went into chemicals (including pharmaceuticals, pigments, and cosmetics) and 11% into bismuth alloys. The price for pure bismuth metal has been relatively stable through most of the 20th century, except for a spike in the 1970s. Bismuth has always been produced mainly as a byproduct of lead refining, and thus the price usually reflected the cost of recovery and the balance between production and demand.

Bismuth-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Bismuth

Bismuth-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Bismuth

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Bismuth

Ultimate tensile strength of Bismuth is 4 MPa.

Yield Strength of Bismuth

Yield strength of Bismuth is 2 MPa.

Modulus of Elasticity of Bismuth

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Bismuth is 2 MPa.

Hardness of Bismuth

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Bismuth is approximately 70 MPa.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Bismuth is approximately N/A.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Bismuth is has a hardness of approximately 2.5.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Bismuth – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Bismuth is rhombohedral structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Bismuth
Crystal Structure of Bismuth is: rhombohedral

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Bismuth

Bismuth-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Bismuth – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Bismuth is 271°C.

Boiling point of Bismuth is 1560°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Bismuth – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Bismuth is W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Bismuth

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Bismuth is 13.4 µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Bismuth – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Bismuth is 0.12 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Bismuth is 11.3 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Bismuth is 104.8 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Bismuth – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Bismuth-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Bismuth

Electrical resistivity of Bismuth is 1290 nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Bismuth conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Bismuth

Magnetic susceptibility of Bismuth is −280e-6 cm^3/mol.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Bismuth in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Other properties of Bismuth

 

Lead – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Lead-properties-price-application-production

About Lead

Lead is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. Lead is widely used as a gamma shield. Major advantage of lead shield is in its compactness due to its higher density. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and concludes three major decay chains of heavier elements.

Summary

Element Lead
Atomic number 82
Element category Poor Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Density 11.34 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 17 MPa
Yield Strength 5.5 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 16 GPa
Mohs Scale 1.5
Brinell Hardness 38 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Melting Point 327.5 °C
Boiling Point 1740 °C
Thermal Conductivity 35 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 28.9 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.13 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 4.799 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 177.7 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter] 208
Magnetic Susceptibility −23e-6 cm^3/mol

Applications of Lead

Lead metal has several useful mechanical properties, including high density, low melting point, ductility, and relative inertness. Lead is widely used for car batteries, pigments, ammunition, cable sheathing, weights for lifting, weight belts for diving, lead crystal glass, radiation protection and in some solders. The largest use of lead in the early 21st century is in lead–acid batteries. The lead in batteries undergoes no direct contact with humans, so there are fewer toxicity concerns. Lead is used in high voltage power cables as sheathing material to prevent water diffusion into insulation; this use is decreasing as lead is being phased out. A lead is widely used as a gamma shield. Major advantage of lead shield is in its compactness due to its higher density. On the other hand depleted uranium is much more effective due to its higher Z. Depleted uranium is used for shielding in portable gamma ray sources.

Lead-applications

Production and Price of Lead

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Lead were at around 15 $/kg.

As of 2014, production of lead is increasing worldwide due to its use in lead–acid batteries. There are two major categories of production: primary from mined ores, and secondary from scrap. In 2014, 4.58 million metric tons came from primary production and 5.64 million from secondary production. The top three producers of mined lead concentrate in that year were China, Australia, and the United States.

Lead-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Lead

Lead-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Lead

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Lead

Ultimate tensile strength of Lead is 17 MPa.

Yield Strength of Lead

Yield strength of Lead is 5.5 MPa.

Modulus of Elasticity of Lead

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Lead is 5.5 MPa.

Hardness of Lead

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Lead is approximately 38 MPa.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Lead is approximately N/A.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Lead is has a hardness of approximately 1.5.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Lead – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Lead is face-centered cubic structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Lead
Crystal Structure of Lead is: face-centered cubic

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Lead

Lead-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Lead – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Lead is 327.5°C.

Boiling point of Lead is 1740°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Lead – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Lead is 35 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Lead

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Lead is 28.9 µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Lead – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Lead is 0.13 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Lead is 4.799 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Lead is 177.7 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Lead – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Lead-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Lead

Electrical resistivity of Lead is 208 nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Lead conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Lead

Magnetic susceptibility of Lead is −23e-6 cm^3/mol.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Lead in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Other properties of Lead

 

Thallium – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Thallium-properties-price-application-production

About Thallium

Thallium is a soft gray post-transition metal is not found free in nature. Commercially, thallium is produced as a byproduct from refining of heavy metal sulfide ores. Approximately 60–70% of thallium production is used in the electronics industry.

Summary

Element Thallium
Atomic number 81
Element category Poor Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Density 11.85 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 8 MPa
Yield Strength 4 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 8 GPa
Mohs Scale 1.2
Brinell Hardness 26.4 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Melting Point 303 °C
Boiling Point 1457 °C
Thermal Conductivity 46 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 29.9 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.13 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 4.142 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 164.1 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter] 180
Magnetic Susceptibility −50.9e-6 cm^3/mol

Applications of Thallium

The use of thallium is limited as it is a toxic element. Thallium is rarely used, with the exception of the manufacture of special grades of glass. In the past, Thallium compounds found applications as diverse as rat poisons and hair restorers! Most thallium is used by the electronics industry in photoelectric cells. Thallium oxide is used to produce special glass with a high index of refraction, and also low melting glass that becomes fluid at about 125K.

Thallium-applications

Production and Price of Thallium

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Thallium were at around 480 $/kg.

Thallium is found in the minerals crookesite TlCu7Se4, hutchinsonite TlPbAs5S9, and lorándite TlAsS2. Thallium also occurs as a trace element in iron pyrite, and thallium is extracted as a by-product of roasting this mineral for the production of sulfuric acid. Thallium can also be obtained from the smelting of lead and zinc ores.

Thallium-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Thallium

Thallium-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Thallium

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Thallium

Ultimate tensile strength of Thallium is 8 MPa.

Yield Strength of Thallium

Yield strength of Thallium is 4 MPa.

Modulus of Elasticity of Thallium

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Thallium is 4 MPa.

Hardness of Thallium

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Thallium is approximately 26.4 MPa.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Thallium is approximately N/A.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Thallium is has a hardness of approximately 1.2.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Thallium – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Thallium is hexagonal close-packed structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Thallium
Crystal Structure of Thallium is: hexagonal close-packed

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Thallium

Thallium-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Thallium – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Thallium is 303°C.

Boiling point of Thallium is 1457°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Thallium – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Thallium is 46 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Thallium

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Thallium is 29.9 µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Thallium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Thallium is 0.13 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Thallium is 4.142 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Thallium is 164.1 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Thallium – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Thallium-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Thallium

Electrical resistivity of Thallium is 180 nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Thallium conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Thallium

Magnetic susceptibility of Thallium is −50.9e-6 cm^3/mol.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Thallium in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Thallium - Comparison of Properties and Prices

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Thallium

 

Mercury – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Mercury-properties-price-application-production

About Mercury

Mercury is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum. Mercury is a heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Summary

Element Mercury
Atomic number 80
Element category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Liquid
Density 13.534 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength N/A
Yield Strength N/A
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity N/A
Mohs Scale N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness N/A
Melting Point -38.9 °C
Boiling Point 357 °C
Thermal Conductivity 8.3 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 60.4 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.139 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 2.295 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 59.229 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter] 961
Magnetic Susceptibility −33.4e-6 cm^3/mol

Applications of Mercury

Mercury is used primarily for the manufacture of industrial chemicals or for electrical and electronic applications. However, because of its toxicity, many uses of mercury are being phased out or are under review. It is used in some thermometers, especially ones which are used to measure high temperatures. Mercury easily forms alloys, called amalgams, with other metals such as gold, silver and tin. The ease with which it amalgamates with gold made it useful in recovering gold from its ores. Mercury amalgams were also used in dental fillings. Gaseous mercury is used in mercury-vapor lamps and some “neon sign” type advertising signs and fluorescent lamps.

Mercury-applications

Production and Price of Mercury

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Mercury were at around 50 $/kg.

The price of mercury has been highly volatile over the years and in 2006 was $650 per 76-pound (34.46 kg) flask. Mercury is extracted by heating cinnabar in a current of air and condensing the vapor. The equation for this extraction is: HgS + O2 → Hg + SO2 In 2005, China was the top producer of mercury with almost two-thirds global share followed by Kyrgyzstan. Several other countries are believed to have unrecorded production of mercury from copper electrowinning processes and by recovery from effluents.

Mercury-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Mercury

Mercury-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Mercury

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Mercury

Ultimate tensile strength of Mercury is N/A.

Yield Strength of Mercury

Yield strength of Mercury is N/A.

Modulus of Elasticity of Mercury

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Mercury is N/A.

Hardness of Mercury

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Mercury is approximately N/A.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Mercury is approximately N/A.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Mercury is has a hardness of approximately N/A.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Mercury – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Mercury is rhombohedral structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Mercury
Crystal Structure of Mercury is: rhombohedral

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Mercury

Mercury-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Mercury – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Mercury is -38.9°C.

Boiling point of Mercury is 357°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Mercury – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Mercury is 8.3 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Mercury

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Mercury is 60.4 µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Mercury – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Mercury is 0.139 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Mercury is 2.295 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Mercury is 59.229 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Mercury – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Mercury-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Mercury

Electrical resistivity of Mercury is 961 nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Mercury conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Mercury

Magnetic susceptibility of Mercury is −33.4e-6 cm^3/mol.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Mercury in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Mercury - Comparison of Properties and Prices

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Mercury

 

Gold – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Gold-properties-price-application-production

About Gold

Gold is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold is thought to have been produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, from the collision of neutron stars.

Summary

Element Gold
Atomic number 79
Element category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Density 19.3 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 220 MPa
Yield Strength 205 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 79 GPa
Mohs Scale 2.75
Brinell Hardness 190 MPa
Vickers Hardness 215 MPa
Melting Point 1064 °C
Boiling Point 2970 °C
Thermal Conductivity 320 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 14.2 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.128 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 12.55 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 334.4 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter] 22.14
Magnetic Susceptibility −28e-6 cm^3/mol

Applications of Gold

Gold is used extensively in jewellery, either in its pure form or as an alloy. About 75% of all gold produced is used in the jewelry industry. Pure gold is too soft to stand up to the stresses applied to many jewelry items. Craftsmen learned that alloying gold with other metals such as copper, silver, and platinum would increase its durability. The term ‘carat’ indicates the amount of gold present in an alloy. 24-carat is pure gold, but it is very soft. 18- and 9-carat gold alloys are commonly used because they are more durable. Gold’s high malleability, ductility, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, and conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices (its chief industrial use). Gold is also used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, and tooth restoration. Only 10% of the world consumption of new gold produced goes to industry, but by far the most important industrial use for new gold is in fabrication of corrosion-free electrical connectors in computers and other electrical devices.

Gold-applications

Production and Price of Gold

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Gold were at around 49900 $/kg.

Hard rock gold mining extracts gold encased in rock, rather than fragments in loose sediment, and produces most of the world’s gold. In 2017, the world’s largest gold producer by far was China with 440 tonnes. The second-largest producer, Australia, mined 300 tonnes in the same year, followed by Russia with 255 tonnes.

Gold-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Gold

Gold-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Gold

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Gold

Ultimate tensile strength of Gold is 220 MPa.

Yield Strength of Gold

Yield strength of Gold is 205 MPa.

Modulus of Elasticity of Gold

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Gold is 205 MPa.

Hardness of Gold

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Gold is approximately 190 MPa.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Gold is approximately 215 MPa.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Gold is has a hardness of approximately 2.75.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Gold – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Gold is face-centered cubic structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Gold
Crystal Structure of Gold is: face-centered cubic

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Gold

Gold-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Gold – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Gold is 1064°C.

Boiling point of Gold is 2970°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Gold – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Gold is 320 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Gold

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Gold is 14.2 µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Gold – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Gold is 0.128 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Gold is 12.55 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Gold is 334.4 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Gold – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Gold-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Gold

Electrical resistivity of Gold is 22.14 nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Gold conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Gold

Magnetic susceptibility of Gold is −28e-6 cm^3/mol.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Gold in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Gold - Comparison of Properties and Prices

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Gold

 

Platinum – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Platinum-properties-price-application-production

About Platinum

Platinum is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. It has remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a noble metal. Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry.

Summary

Element Platinum
Atomic number 78
Element category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Density 21.09 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 150 MPa
Yield Strength 70 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 168 GPa
Mohs Scale 3.5
Brinell Hardness 400 MPa
Vickers Hardness 550 MPa
Melting Point 1772 °C
Boiling Point 3827 °C
Thermal Conductivity 72 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 8.8 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.13 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 19.6 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 510 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter] 105
Magnetic Susceptibility +201e-6 cm^3/mol

Applications of Platinum

Platinum is primarily an industrial metal. It is a critical material for many industries and is considered a strategic metal. Platinum is used as a catalyst, platinum is mostly found in vehicle catalytic converters that reduce toxic exhaust chemicals, and also in fuel cells to increase efficiency. The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black. In catalytic converters, platinum allows the complete combustion of low concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons from the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor. Platinum has been used in thermocouple devices that measure temperature with high accuracy. Platinum is a component in magnetic coatings for high-density hard disk drives and some of the newer optical storage systems.

Platinum-applications

Production and Price of Platinum

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Platinum were at around 31500 $/kg.

Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals, is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing. During electrorefining of copper, noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as “anode mud”, which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals. Of the 218 tonnes of platinum sold in 2014, 98 tonnes were used for vehicle emissions control devices (45%), 74.7 tonnes for jewelry (34%), 20.0 tonnes for chemical production and petroleum refining (9.2%), and 5.85 tonnes for electrical applications such as hard disk drives (2.7%). As of 2020, the value of platinum is around $32.00 per gram ($1,000 per troy ounce).

Platinum-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Platinum

Platinum-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Platinum

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Platinum

Ultimate tensile strength of Platinum is 150 MPa.

Yield Strength of Platinum

Yield strength of Platinum is 70 MPa.

Modulus of Elasticity of Platinum

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Platinum is 70 MPa.

Hardness of Platinum

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Platinum is approximately 400 MPa.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Platinum is approximately 550 MPa.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Platinum is has a hardness of approximately 3.5.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Platinum – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Platinum is face-centered cubic structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Platinum
Crystal Structure of Platinum is: face-centered cubic

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Platinum

Platinum-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Platinum – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Platinum is 1772°C.

Boiling point of Platinum is 3827°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Platinum – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Platinum is 72 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Platinum

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Platinum is 8.8 µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Platinum – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Platinum is 0.13 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Platinum is 19.6 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Platinum is 510 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Platinum – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Platinum-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Platinum

Electrical resistivity of Platinum is 105 nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Platinum conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Platinum

Magnetic susceptibility of Platinum is +201e-6 cm^3/mol.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Platinum in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Platinum - Comparison of Properties and Prices

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Platinum

 

Iridium – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Iridium-properties-price-application-production

About Iridium

Iridium is a very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum group, iridium is generally credited with being the second densest element (after osmium). It is also the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at temperatures as high as 2000 °C.

Summary

Element Iridium
Atomic number 77
Element category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Density 22.65 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 2000 MPa
Yield Strength N/A
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 528 GPa
Mohs Scale 6.25
Brinell Hardness 1670 MPa
Vickers Hardness 1760 MPa
Melting Point 2410 °C
Boiling Point 4130 °C
Thermal Conductivity 150 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 6.4 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.13 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 26.1 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 604 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter] 47
Magnetic Susceptibility +26e-6 cm^3/mol

Applications of Iridium

Iridium is mainly consumed by the automotive, electronic, and chemical industries. Iridium metal is employed when high corrosion resistance at high temperatures is needed, as in high-performance spark plugs, crucibles for recrystallization of semiconductors at high temperatures, and electrodes for the production of chlorine in the chloralkali process. The demand for iridium surged from 2.5 tonnes in 2009 to 10.4 tonnes in 2010, mostly because of electronics-related applications that saw a rise from 0.2 to 6 tonnes – iridium crucibles are commonly used for growing large high-quality single crystals, demand for which has increased sharply.

Iridium-applications

Production and Price of Iridium

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Iridium were at around 44900 $/kg.

In 2019, worldwide production of iridium totaled 242,000 ounces (6860 kg). Similarly as osmium, iridium concentrates are produced as a by-product of nickel and copper mining or alternatively while isolating the platinum metal from its ores. During electrorefining of copper and nickel, noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum group metals, together with non-metallic elements such as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as anode mud, which forms the starting material for their extraction.

Iridium-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Iridium

Iridium-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Iridium

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Iridium

Ultimate tensile strength of Iridium is 2000 MPa.

Yield Strength of Iridium

Yield strength of Iridium is N/A.

Modulus of Elasticity of Iridium

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Iridium is N/A.

Hardness of Iridium

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Iridium is approximately 1670 MPa.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Iridium is approximately 1760 MPa.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Iridium is has a hardness of approximately 6.25.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Iridium – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Iridium is face-centered cubic structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Iridium
Crystal Structure of Iridium is: face-centered cubic

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Iridium

Iridium-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Iridium – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Iridium is 2410°C.

Boiling point of Iridium is 4130°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Iridium – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Iridium is 150 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Iridium

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Iridium is 6.4 µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Iridium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Iridium is 0.13 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Iridium is 26.1 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Iridium is 604 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Iridium – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Iridium-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Iridium

Electrical resistivity of Iridium is 47 nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Iridium conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Iridium

Magnetic susceptibility of Iridium is +26e-6 cm^3/mol.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Iridium in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Iridium - Comparison of Properties and Prices

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Iridium

 

Osmium – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Osmium-properties-price-application-production

About Osmium

Osmium is a hard, brittle, bluish-white transition metal in the platinum group that is found as a trace element in alloys, mostly in platinum ores. Osmium is the densest naturally occurring element, with a density of 22.59 g/cm3. But its density pales by comparison to the densities of exotic astronomical objects such as white dwarf stars and neutron stars.

Summary

Element Osmium
Atomic number 76
Element category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Density 22.61 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 1000 MPa
Yield Strength N/A
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity N/A
Mohs Scale 7
Brinell Hardness 3900 MPa
Vickers Hardness 4140 MPa
Melting Point 3045 °C
Boiling Point 5030 °C
Thermal Conductivity 88 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 5.1 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.13 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 31.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 746 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter] 81.2
Magnetic Susceptibility +11e-6 cm^3/mol

Applications of Osmium

Due to its rarity and hence expense, osmium has only a few industrial uses. It is used to produce very hard alloys for fountain pen tips, instrument pivots, needles and electrical contacts. It is also used in the chemical industry as a catalyst. Finely divided osmium metal can be used as a catalyst e.g. in the process of forming ammonia by combining hydrogen and nitrogen.

Osmium-applications

Production and Price of Osmium

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Osmium were at around 20000 $/kg.

Osmium concentrates are produced as a by-product of nickel and copper mining or alternatively while isolating the platinum metal from its ores. During electrorefining of copper and nickel, noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum group metals, together with non-metallic elements such as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as anode mud, which forms the starting material for their extraction.

Osmium-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Osmium

Osmium-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Osmium

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Osmium

Ultimate tensile strength of Osmium is 1000 MPa.

Yield Strength of Osmium

Yield strength of Osmium is N/A.

Modulus of Elasticity of Osmium

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Osmium is N/A.

Hardness of Osmium

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Osmium is approximately 3900 MPa.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Osmium is approximately 4140 MPa.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Osmium is has a hardness of approximately 7.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Osmium – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Osmium is hexagonal close-packed structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Osmium
Crystal Structure of Osmium is: hexagonal close-packed

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Osmium

Osmium-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Osmium – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Osmium is 3045°C.

Boiling point of Osmium is 5030°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Osmium – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Osmium is 88 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Osmium

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Osmium is 5.1 µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Osmium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Osmium is 0.13 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Osmium is 31.8 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Osmium is 746 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Osmium – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Osmium-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Osmium

Electrical resistivity of Osmium is 81.2 nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Osmium conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Osmium

Magnetic susceptibility of Osmium is +11e-6 cm^3/mol.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Osmium in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Osmium - Comparison of Properties and Prices

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Osmium