Manganese – Properties – Price – Applications – Production

Manganese-properties-price-application-production

About Manganese

Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels.

Summary

Element Manganese
Atomic number 25
Element category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Density 7.47 g/cm3
Ultimate Tensile Strength 650 MPa
Yield Strength 230 MPa
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 198 GPa
Mohs Scale 6
Brinell Hardness 200 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Melting Point 1246 °C
Boiling Point 2061 °C
Thermal Conductivity 7.82 W/mK
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 21.7 µm/mK
Specific Heat 0.48 J/g K
Heat of Fusion 12.05 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 266 kJ/mol
Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter] 1440
Magnetic Susceptibility +529e-6 cm^3/mol

Applications of Manganese

Manganese is an important alloying agent. Almost 90% of the manganese produced annually is used in the production of steel. In steels, manganese improves the rolling and forging qualities, as well as strength, toughness, stiffness, wear resistance, hardness and hardenability. The second largest application for manganese is in aluminium alloys. Aluminium with roughly 1.5% manganese has increased resistance to corrosion through grains that absorb impurities which would lead to galvanic corrosion. Manganese can be formed into many useful compounds. For example, manganese oxide, which can be used in fertilizers and ceramics.

Manganese-applications

Production and Price of Manganese

Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Manganese were at around 17 $/kg.

Manganese is most commonly produced by the reduction of the oxide with sodium, magnesium or aluminium. Alternatively it can be produced by electrolysis. About 80% of the known world manganese resources are in South Africa; other important manganese deposits are in Ukraine, Australia, India, China, Gabon and Brazil.

Manganese-periodic-table

Source: www.luciteria.com

Mechanical Properties of Manganese

Manganese-mechanical-properties-strength-hardness-crystal-structure

Strength of Manganese

In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.

For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

See also: Strength of Materials

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Manganese

Ultimate tensile strength of Manganese is 650 MPa.

Yield Strength of Manganese

Yield strength of Manganese is 230 MPa.

Modulus of Elasticity of Manganese

The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Manganese is 198 GPa.

Hardness of Manganese

In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratchingBrinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.

Brinell hardness of Manganese is approximately 200 MPa.

The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.

Vickers hardness of Manganese is approximately N/A.

Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.

Manganese is has a hardness of approximately 6.

See also: Hardness of Materials

Manganese – Crystal Structure

A possible crystal structure of Manganese is body-centered cubic structure.

crystal structures - FCC, BCC, HCP

In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.

See also: Crystal Structure of Materials

Crystal Structure of Manganese
Crystal Structure of Manganese is: body-centered cubic

Strength of Elements

Elasticity of Elements

Hardness of Elements

 

Thermal Properties of Manganese

Manganese-melting-point-conductivity-thermal-properties

Manganese – Melting Point and Boiling Point

Melting point of Manganese is 1246°C.

Boiling point of Manganese is 2061°C.

Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.

Manganese – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity of Manganese is 7.82 W/(m·K).

The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Manganese

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Manganese is 21.7 µm/(m·K)

Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.

Manganese – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Manganese is 0.48 J/g K.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Manganese is 12.05 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Manganese is 266 kJ/mol.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Melting Point of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - melting point

Thermal Conductivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal conductivity

Thermal Expansion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - thermal expansion

Heat Capacity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - heat capacity

Heat of Fusion of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat fusion

Heat of Vaporization of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - latent heat vaporization

Manganese – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility

Manganese-electrical-resistivity-magnetic-susceptibility

Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.

See also: Electrical Properties

Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.

See also: Magnetic Properties

Electrical Resistivity of Manganese

Electrical resistivity of Manganese is 1440 nΩ⋅m.

Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Manganese conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.

Magnetic Susceptibility of Manganese

Magnetic susceptibility of Manganese is +529e-6 cm^3/mol.

In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Manganese in response to an applied magnetic field.

Electrical Resistivity of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements - electrical resistivity

Magnetic Susceptibility of Elements

Application and prices of other elements

Manganese - Comparison of Properties and Prices

Periodic Table in 8K resolution

Other properties of Manganese