Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels.
|Element category||Transition Metal|
|Phase at STP||Solid|
|Ultimate Tensile Strength||650 MPa|
|Yield Strength||230 MPa|
|Young’s Modulus of Elasticity||198 GPa|
|Brinell Hardness||200 MPa|
|Melting Point||1246 °C|
|Boiling Point||2061 °C|
|Thermal Conductivity||7.82 W/mK|
|Thermal Expansion Coefficient||21.7 µm/mK|
|Specific Heat||0.48 J/g K|
|Heat of Fusion||12.05 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||266 kJ/mol|
|Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter]||1440|
|Magnetic Susceptibility||+529e-6 cm^3/mol|
Applications of Manganese
Manganese is an important alloying agent. Almost 90% of the manganese produced annually is used in the production of steel. In steels, manganese improves the rolling and forging qualities, as well as strength, toughness, stiffness, wear resistance, hardness and hardenability. The second largest application for manganese is in aluminium alloys. Aluminium with roughly 1.5% manganese has increased resistance to corrosion through grains that absorb impurities which would lead to galvanic corrosion. Manganese can be formed into many useful compounds. For example, manganese oxide, which can be used in fertilizers and ceramics.
Production and Price of Manganese
Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Manganese were at around 17 $/kg.
Manganese is most commonly produced by the reduction of the oxide with sodium, magnesium or aluminium. Alternatively it can be produced by electrolysis. About 80% of the known world manganese resources are in South Africa; other important manganese deposits are in Ukraine, Australia, India, China, Gabon and Brazil.
Mechanical Properties of Manganese
Strength of Manganese
In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.
For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.
See also: Strength of Materials
Ultimate Tensile Strength of Manganese
Ultimate tensile strength of Manganese is 650 MPa.
Yield Strength of Manganese
Yield strength of Manganese is 230 MPa.
Modulus of Elasticity of Manganese
The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Manganese is 198 GPa.
Hardness of Manganese
In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratching. Brinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested.
Brinell hardness of Manganese is approximately 200 MPa.
The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work.
Vickers hardness of Manganese is approximately N/A.
Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly.
Manganese is has a hardness of approximately 6.
See also: Hardness of Materials
Manganese – Crystal Structure
A possible crystal structure of Manganese is body-centered cubic structure.
In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices.
See also: Crystal Structure of Materials
Thermal Properties of Manganese
Manganese – Melting Point and Boiling Point
Melting point of Manganese is 1246°C.
Boiling point of Manganese is 2061°C.
Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.
Manganese – Thermal Conductivity
Thermal conductivity of Manganese is 7.82 W/(m·K).
The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Manganese
Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Manganese is 21.7 µm/(m·K)
Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.
Manganese – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization
Specific heat of Manganese is 0.48 J/g K.
Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.
Latent Heat of Fusion of Manganese is 12.05 kJ/mol.
Latent Heat of Vaporization of Manganese is 266 kJ/mol.
Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.
Manganese – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic Susceptibility
Electrical property refers to the response of a material to an applied electric field. One of the principal characteristics of materials is their ability (or lack of ability) to conduct electrical current. Indeed, materials are classified by this property, that is, they are divided into conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors.
See also: Electrical Properties
Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently.
See also: Magnetic Properties
Electrical Resistivity of Manganese
Electrical resistivity of Manganese is 1440 nΩ⋅m.
Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Manganese conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.
Magnetic Susceptibility of Manganese
Magnetic susceptibility of Manganese is +529e-6 cm^3/mol.
In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Manganese in response to an applied magnetic field.
Application and prices of other elements