With a standard atomic weight of circa 1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.
|Element category||Non Metal|
|Phase at STP||Gas|
|Ultimate Tensile Strength||N/A|
|Young’s Modulus of Elasticity||N/A|
|Melting Point||-259.1 °C|
|Boiling Point||-252.9 °C|
|Thermal Conductivity||0.1805 W/mK|
|Thermal Expansion Coefficient||— µm/mK|
|Specific Heat||14.304 J/g K|
|Heat of Fusion||0.05868 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||0.44936 kJ/mol|
|Electrical resistivity [nanoOhm meter]||—|
|Magnetic Susceptibility||−3.98e-6 cm^3/mol|
Applications of Hydrogen
Hydrogen is versatile and can be utilized in various ways. These multiple uses can be grouped into two large categories. Hydrogen as a feedstock. A role whose importance is being recognized for decades and will continue to grow and evolve. The largest single use of hydrogen in the world is in ammonia manufacture, which consumes about two-thirds of the world’s hydrogen production. Hydrogen is versatile and can be utilized in various ways. These multiple uses can be grouped into two large categories. Hydrogen as a feedstock for further chemical processes. A role whose importance is being recognized for decades and will continue to grow and evolve. And hydrogen as an energy carrier. Hydrogen is also commonly used in power stations as a coolant in generators due to a number of favorable properties that are a direct result of its light diatomic molecules.
Production and Price of Hydrogen
Raw materials prices change daily. They are primarily driven by supply, demand and energy prices. In 2019, prices of pure Hydrogen were at around 120 $/kg. Hydrogen is produced in chemistry and biology laboratories, often as a by-product of other reactions. In industry, hydrogen is often produced using natural gas, which involves the removal of hydrogen from hydrocarbons at very high temperatures, with about 95% of hydrogen production coming from steam reforming around year 2000.
Mechanical Properties of Hydrogen
Strength of Hydrogen
In mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. Strength of materials basically considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. In designing structures and machines, it is important to consider these factors, in order that the material selected will have adequate strength to resist applied loads or forces and retain its original shape. Strength of a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation. For tensile stress, the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate is known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins. See also: Strength of Materials
Ultimate Tensile Strength of Hydrogen
Ultimate tensile strength of Hydrogen is N/A.
Yield Strength of Hydrogen
Yield strength of Hydrogen is N/A.
Modulus of Elasticity of Hydrogen
The Young’s modulus of elasticity of Hydrogen is N/A.
Hardness of Hydrogen
In materials science, hardness is the ability to withstand surface indentation (localized plastic deformation) and scratching. Brinell hardness test is one of indentation hardness tests, that has been developed for hardness testing. In Brinell tests, a hard, spherical indenter is forced under a specific load into the surface of the metal to be tested. Brinell hardness of Hydrogen is approximately N/A. The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work. Vickers hardness of Hydrogen is approximately N/A. Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The most common scale for this qualitative test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly. Hydrogen is has a hardness of approximately N/A. See also: Hardness of Materials
Hydrogen – Crystal Structure
A possible crystal structure of Hydrogen is hexagonal structure. In metals, and in many other solids, the atoms are arranged in regular arrays called crystals. A crystal lattice is a repeating pattern of mathematical points that extends throughout space. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. It is this repeated pattern which control properties like strength, ductility, density, conductivity (property of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.), and shape. There are 14 general types of such patterns known as Bravais lattices. See also: Crystal Structure of Materials
Crystal Structure of Hydrogen
Thermal Properties of Hydrogen
Hydrogen – Melting Point and Boiling Point
Melting point of Hydrogen is -259.1°C.
Boiling point of Hydrogen is -252.9°C.
Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure.
Hydrogen – Thermal Conductivity
Thermal conductivity of Hydrogen is 0.1805 W/(m·K). The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured in W/m.K. It is a measure of a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies for all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas), therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Hydrogen
Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Hydrogen is — µm/(m·K) Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature. It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change.
Hydrogen – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization
Specific heat of Hydrogen is 14.304 J/g K. Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample. Latent Heat of Fusion of Hydrogen is 0.05868 kJ/mol. Latent Heat of Vaporization of Hydrogen is 0.44936 kJ/mol. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.
Hydrogen – Electrical Resistivity – Magnetic SusceptibilityElectrical Properties Magnetic property refers to the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The macroscopic magnetic properties of a material are a consequence of interactions between an external magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moments of the constituent atoms. Different materials react to the application of magnetic field differently. See also: Magnetic Properties
Electrical Resistivity of Hydrogen
Electrical resistivity of Hydrogen is — nΩ⋅m. Electrical conductivity and its converse, electrical resistivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how Hydrogen conducts the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.
Magnetic Susceptibility of Hydrogen
Magnetic susceptibility of Hydrogen is −3.98e-6 cm^3/mol. In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of Hydrogen in response to an applied magnetic field.